• Who were the leading figures of the Enlightenment & what were their main contributions?
  • In what type of social environment did the philosophes thrive & what role did women play in that environment?
  • What innovations in art, music & literature occurred in the 18th century?
  • How did popular culture differ from high culture in the 18th century?
  • How did popular religion differ from institutional religion in the 18th century?
  • What is the relationship between the Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment?


  • The earth-shattering work of the “natural philosophers” in the ______Revolution had affected only a relatively small number of Europe’s ______elite
  • In the 18th century this changed dramatically as a group of intellectuals known as the “______” popularized the ideas of the Scientific Revolution & used them to undertake a dramatic ______of all aspects of life
  • After the Scientific Revolution & the new ways of ______, scholars & philosophers began to reevaluate old notions about society as they ought new insight about beliefs regarding ______, religion, economics, & ______
  • In 1784 the German philosopher “______” defined the “______” as “man’s leaving his self-caused immaturity” whereas earlier periods had been handicapped by the inability to “use one’s intelligence w/o the guidance of another”
  • “Dare to know! Have the courage to use your own ______!”
  • The Enlightenment (Age of ______) was a movement of intellectuals who dared to know
  • They were greatly impressed with the ______s of the S.R. & when they used the word “reason” they were advocating the application of the scientific method to the understanding of all life
  • All institutions & all systems of thought were subject to the ______, scientific way of thinking if only people would free themselves from the shackles of old worthless traditions especially the religious ones
  • Reason, Natural Law, Hope & Progress----______buzz words


  • The ______of the 18th century were especially influenced by the revolutionary ______of the 17th century
  • The popularization of Science, New Skepticism, the Impact of Travel Literature & the Legacy of Locke & Newton were the ______major intellectual changes that culminated in the intellectual movement of the Enlightenment
  • Bernard de ______(1657-1757) was the secretary of the French Royal Academy of Science who was able to communicate scientific knowledge in a clear & witty fashion that appealed to upper-class audiences in a meaningful way “Plurality of Worlds”-----no longer for experts but now part of ______(Science ideas like Newton’s was hard to read)
  • 17th century scientists like Kepler & Newton did not want to undermine ______but as scientific knowledge spread more & more men & women began to question religious truths & values like “Pierre Bayle” (1647-1706) who remained a Protestant while becoming a leading critic/skeptic of traditional ______attitudes
  • He attacked superstition, religious intolerance & ______(the tendency to lay down principles as incontrovertibly true, without consideration of evidence or the opinions of others) & in his view compelling people to believe a particular set of religious ideas was wrong
  • ______about both Christianity & European culture was nourished by travel reports from traders, missionaries, medical practitioners & ______who began to publish travel books that gave accounts of many different cultures-----James Cook “Cooks Travels” gave accounts of his journey to Tahiti, New Zealand & Australia
  • This gave way to “cultural ______” which is the view that no culture is superior to any other culture when comparing systems of morality, law, politics---It's the philosophical notion that all cultural ______are equally valid & that truth itself is relative, depending on the cultural ______
  • The intellectual inspiration for the Enlightenment came primarily from _____ Englishmen-----Isaac Newton who had the intellectuals convinced that by following “Newton’s Laws of Reasoning” they could discover ______that governed politics, economies, justice, religion & the arts & John Locke whose “Theory of Knowledge” that stated every person was born w/a blank mind therefore our knowledge is derived from our ______, not from heredity; from reason not from faith (You are a product of your environment)

The Philosphes & Their Ideas

  • The intellectuals of the Enlightenment were know by the French term “philosophes” although not all o f them were French & few were actually ______
  • They were literary people, professors, journalists, statesmen (______leaders), economists, political scientists & social reformers-----notice not da ______!!!
  • Most came from both the nobility & the middle class & a few from lower origins but it was overall a truly international & “______” movement (a person who has lived in & knows about many different parts of the world)

Philosophes Advocate Reason

  • Social critics in ______believed that people could apply reason to all aspects of life
  • 5 concepts form the core of these beliefs
  • ______– Believed truth could be discovered through reason or logical thinking
  • ______– Believed that what is natural was also good & reasonable
  • ______– Rejected the notion that people should find joy in the hereafter & urged people to seek well-being on earth
  • ______– Stressed that society & humankind could improve
  • ______– Called for the liberties the English people had won in their Glorious Revolution & Bill of Rights

Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679)

  • Hobbes was an ______philosopher known for his views on how humans could thrive in harmony while avoiding the perils & fear of societal ______
  • Was one of the founders of modern ______philosophy & political science
  • Published “______” in 1651 which established social contract theory, the foundation of most later Western political philosophy
  • He believed that all humans were naturally ______& ______
  • Without ______to keep order there would be “war… of every man against every man” & life would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutal & short
  • He argued that for people to escape such a bleak life, people must hand over their rights to a stronger ruler & in exchange the people got law & order----- agreement called the “______”
  • The ruler needed to keep citizens under control because people acted in their own ______
  • In his view such a government was an absolute ______which could impose order & demand obedience
  • Hobbes also developed some of the fundamentals of European liberal thought:
  • The right of the ______
  • The natural ______of all men
  • The artificial character of the political order (which led to the later distinction between civil society and the state)
  • The view that all legitimate political power must be "______" & based on the consent of the people; & a liberal interpretation of law which leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid

John Locke (1632-1704)

  • Locke was an English philosopher & physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers & commonly known as the "Father of ______" (wide array of views)
  • He is equally important to social contract theory as his work greatly affected the development of “______” (investigation of what distinguishes justified belief from opinion) & “political philosophy” (study of ______)
  • His writings influenced Voltaire & Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American ______
  • Locke believed that people could learn from ______& improve ______
  • He criticized absolute monarchs & believed in ______& that all people are born free & equal with three natural rights- life, liberty & property-----sound familiar?-----It should!!
  • His book “Two Treatises of Government” published in 1689 (a written work dealing formally & systematically with a subject) said government’s purpose is to protect these rights & if the government fails to do so then the people have the right to ______it
  • He believed that a government gets its power from the consent of the ______(foundation of modern ______)
  • His contributions to classical republicanism & liberal theory are reflected in the U.S. Declaration of ______

Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)

  • Montesquieu was a French writer that devoted himself to the study of political ______
  • His most famous work “The Spirit of the Laws” published in 1748 in which was a comparative study of governments in which he attempted to apply the ______method to the social & political arena to ascertain the “______” governing the social relationships of human beings
  • He distinguished 3 basic kinds of ______
  • ______which are suitable for small states & based on citizens involvement
  • ______which was appropriate for middle-sized states & grounded in the ruling class’s adherence to law
  • ______(absolute power) which was appropriate for large empires & dependent on fear to inspire obedience
  • He believed that Britain had the best form of government & called the division of powers among different ______---separation of ______
  • Proposed separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of ______
  • His ideas of checks & balances are the basis for the ______of the United States of America

Francois-Marie Arouet a.k.a. Voltaire (1694-1778)

  • Considered one of the most brilliant & ______philosophers & the greatest figure of the Enlightenment
  • Published more than _____ books of political essays, philosophy & drama & often used satire& made clergy, the ______& government targets of his writings
  • His writings made him enemies at the French court & twice he was sent to ______
  • He was ______to England for more than two years, but he never quit fighting for ______, reason, freedom of religious belief & freedom of speech
  • In 1763 he penned “Treatise on Toleration” which argued that religious toleration had created no ______for England & Holland & reminded governments that “all men are brothers under God”
  • He coined the word “______” which is a religious outlook that suggested the existence of a mechanic ______who had created the ______
  • Voltaire & other philosopohes believed that God had no direct ______in the world he had created & allowed it to run according to its own “______” (a body of unchanging moral principles regarded as a basis for all human conduct)
  • God did not extend grace or answer ______as Christians liked to believe
  • Jesus might be a good fellow but he was not ______as Christianity claimed

Denis Diderot (1713-1784)

  • Diderot was a French philosopher, writer & the editor-in-chief of the famous “Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers” (17 volumes) which was a summary of all available knowledge which challenged the ______of the Roman Catholic Church & of the aristocratic ______, both of whom tried to suppress it
  • He promoted the optimistic belief that all knowledge could be acquired through scientific ______& the exercise of reason, and championed the value and uniqueness of the ______
  • He explored the idea that different individuals should be judged by different moral standards according to their ______
  • Diderot also suggested that ______should be tailored to the abilities and interests of the individual student & that students should learn to experiment & do research rather than simply acquiring ______

David Hume (1711-1776)

  • Generally regarded as one of the most important philosophers to write in English, Hume also well known in his own time as an ______& ______
  • A master stylist in any genre, his major philosophical work was “A Treatise of Human Nature” (1739–1740) in which he intended to develop a “science of man” by applying Newton’s experimental method to human ______---he thought he could discover certain general laws about human thinking & behavior
  • he intends to develop a “science of man” by applying Sir Isaac Newton’s experimental method to human mental behavior he intends to develop a “science of man” by applying Sir Isaac Newton’s experimental method to human mental behavior he intends to develop a “science of man” by applying Sir Isaac Newton’s experimental method to human mental behaviorAlthough Hume's more conservative contemporaries denounced his writings as works of skepticism & atheism, his influence is evident in the moral philosophy & economic writings of his close friend ______

Adam Smith (1723-1790)

  • Smith was a Scottish social philosopher & political economist & is viewed as one of the founders of the modern discipline of ______
  • He wrote “The Wealth of Nations” in 1776 which is thought of as the 1st work dedicated to the study of political ______
  • Developed ______basic principles of economics
  • Free Trade
  • Instead of gold & silver ______constituted the true wealth of a nation
  • The state should not interfere in ______matters as it should protect society from invasion (army), defend people from injustice & oppression (police) & keep up certain public works like roads & canals b/c private individuals could not afford to
  • His view was that the state should stay out of the lives of ______(economic liberalism) & (laissez-faire) or let the people do as they choose

Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

  • Won recognition as a writer of essays & often focused on individual rights or ______
  • Published “The Social Contract” in 1762 where he argued that civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness
  • He believed the only good ______is one that was freely formed by the people & guided by general will of society (______ democracy)
  • Under this ______people would give up some of their freedom in favor of the common good
  • He believed that legitimate government could come from consent of the ______& that all people were equal & the titles of nobility should be abolished
  • His treatise on “The Education of the Natural Man” was written b/c he believed that ______should foster rather than ______children’s natural instincts
  • Life ______were important b/c they were prompting of the heart & what was sought as balance b/t heart & mind & b/t sentiment (attitude) & ______
  • This made a precursor of the intellectual ,movement called “______” that dominated Europe at the beginning of the 19th century
  • Romanticism is the movement in the arts & literature emphasizing ______, subjectivity & the importance of the ______

Cesare Bonesana Beccaria (1738-1794)

  • Beccaria was an Italian philosopher that believed that laws existed to preserve social order, not avenge ______
  • He argued that a person should receive a speedy ______& that ______should never be used
  • The degree of the ______should be based on the crime & capital punishment should be abolished
  • He based his ideas about justice on the principle that government should seek the greatest ______for the greatest number of ______
  • His ideas influenced criminal law reforms in ______& North ______

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)

  • Male writers had argued for more education for women & for women’s ______in marriage
  • Women writers also tried to improve the ______of women
  • Mary Astell wrote “A Serious Proposal to the Ladies” & said “If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves?”
  • Mary Wollstonecraft Published “A vindication of the Rights of Women” in which she argued that women’s education should not be second to men’s, rather women need education to become ______& useful
  • She also urged women to enter the male-dominated fields of ______& ______

The Social Environment Of The Philosophes

  • Of great importance to the Enlightenment was the spread of its ideas to the literate elite of European society
  • Although the sale of books & treatises were crucial so was the “______” which is where philosophers, writers, artists, scientists & other great intellects would meet to discuss ______
  • The salon prompted ______& ______b/t upper-class men & women as well as spreading the ideas of the Enlightenment
  • Coffeehouses, cafes, reading clubs & public libraries were also established by the state as ______places to exchange ______


  • The intellectual adventure fostered by the philosophes was accompanied by both traditional practices & important changes in 18th century ______& ______

Innovation In Art, Music & Literature

  • Although the “______” & “______l” styles that had dominated the 17th century continued into the 18th century, by the 1730s a new style known as “______” had begun to affect decoration & architecture all over Europe
  • Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion & clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance & grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater & music that began in ______around 1600
  • Neoclassical is based on the principles of ______& ______& is a revival of the styles & spirit of classic antiquity inspired directly from the classical period, which coincided & reflected the developments in philosophy & other areas of the Age of Enlightenment & was initially a reaction against the excesses of the preceding Rococo style (Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome)
  • The Rococo style emphasized grace & gentile action & rejected strict geometrical patterns & had a fondness for curves mixed with playful & witty ______(Palace of ______)
  • It made much use of interlaced designs colored in gold w/ delicate contours & graceful ______
  • The appeal was evident in the work of Antione ______(1684-1721) whose lyrical views of aristocratic life (refined, sensual, civilized, w/ guys & gals in elegant dress) reflected a world of upper-class ______& joy
  • The 17th & 18th centuries were the formative years of classical music & saw the rise of the opera & oratorio, the sonata, the concerto, the symphony & many of the techniques of the Baroque musical style which were perfected by ______& ______
  • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) who came from a family of musicians was an organist & music director of ______music at the Church of Saint Thomas in Leipzip in 1723
  • There Bach composed his Mass in (______) as a means to worship God
  • George Frederick Handel (1685-1759) was also born in Saxony in Germany who wrote for large public ______& was not averse to writing huge, unusual sounding pieces
  • He wrote more than 40 operas but is best known for his religious music (______)
  • A new musical period called the classical era (1750-1830) also emerged & produced Haydn & Mozart which caused the musical center to switch from Italy & Germany to the ______Empire
  • Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) spent most of his life as a musical director for the wealthy ______princes---he composed 104 symphonies as well as ______concerts (The Creation & The Seasons)
  • Wolfgang Amadeus ______(1756-1791) was a child prodigy who had his first concert at age 6 & wrote his first opera at age 12---(The Marriage of Figaro, The Magic Flute & Don Giovanni---3 of the worlds greatest ______)
  • The development of the “______” was not completely new genre but grew out of the medieval romances & the ______of the 6th century
  • Samuel ______(1689-1761) wrote “Virtue Rewarded” which is a novel about a servant girls resistance to numerous ______attempts by her master
  • Henry ______(1707-1754) wrote “The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling” which is a novel about the numerous adventures of a young ______
  • The philosophes were responsible for creating a revolution in the writing of ______b/c their secular orientation caused them to eliminate the role of God in history & freed them to concentrate on ______themselves & search for casual relationships in the natural world

The High Culture Of The 18th Century

  • Historians & cultural “______” (study humanity) have grown accustomed to distinguishing b/t a civilization’s “______ culture” & its “______ culture”
  • High Culture is a set of cultural products, mainly in the arts, held in the highest esteem by a culture (educated & ______)
  • Popular Culture is a entirety of ideas, perspectives, ______, images & other phenomena that are within the mainstream of a given culture (passed down orally)
  • Especially noticeable in the 18th century was an explosion of both the reading public & ______which made it possible for authors to make ______from their works
  • 1750 – ______titles issued yearly
  • 1780 – ______titles issued yearly
  • ______were an important aspect of the growth of publishing as Great Britain was the center for the new magazines (1700-1780 = 25-158 periodicals)
  • By the 18th century Europe was home to a large number of privately endowed secondary schools (the ______in Germany & the ______in France & Spain)
  • Theses schools tended to be elitist & designed to meet the needs of the children of the ______classes of society (math, science & modern languages)

Crime & Punishment