AP BiologyName ______

Chapter 48 Reading Guide

  1. What is a nerve net?
  2. Compare and contrast the central and peripheral nervous systems.
  3. How does the organization of the nervous system of a _____ compare with the organization of the nervous system of a ____?
  4. Hydra and insect
  5. Hydra and flatworm
  6. Leech and salamander
  7. What are the functions of the following:
  8. Sensory neurons
  9. Interneurons
  10. Motor neurons
  11. Effector cells
  12. Use the diagram to the right to demonstrate the activity surrounding a reflex response.
  1. Label the neuron below and briefly describe each part.
  1. Why are glial cells important?
  2. What are astrocytes?
  3. What is the blood brain barrier and why is it important?
  4. Label the diagram below and explain why myelin is important in nerve conduction?
  1. Define the following terms:
  2. Membrane potential
  3. Resting potential
  4. Discuss the three types of gated ion channels below:
  5. Stretch
  6. Ligand
  7. Voltage
  8. Define the following terms:
  9. Hyperpolarization
  1. Depolarization
  1. Graded potentials
  1. Threshold
  1. Action potential
  1. Label the diagram below concerning the generation of an action potential. Briefly describe each step.
  1. How do the various factors affect the speed of an action potential?
  2. Larger axon
  3. Myelination and salutatory conduction
  4. Label the diagram to the right demonstrating the conduction of the action potential.
  5. What happens at the synaptic cleft?
  6. Contrast excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.
  7. Contrast temporal and spatial summation.
  1. What happens when indirect synaptic transmission takes place?
  2. Discuss the neurotransmitters listed below:
  3. Acetylcholine
  4. Biogenic amines
  5. Epinephrine and norepinephrine
  6. Dopamine
  7. Serotonin
  8. GABA
  9. Endorphins
  10. Nitrous oxide
  11. What is the difference between gray matter and white matter?
  12. Define the following terms:
  13. Central nervous system
  1. Peripheral nervous system
  1. Somatic nervous system
  1. Autonomic nervous system
  1. Contrast the core functions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system.
  2. What are the three brain regions during embryonic development?
  3. What are the parts of the brainstem and what are its functions?
  4. What is the reticular formation?
  5. What are the core functions of the cerebellum
  6. What are the parts of the diencephalons and what are its functions?
  7. What are circadian rhythms?
  8. Describe the cerebral hemispheres.
  9. What is the corpus callosum?
  10. What is the limbic system and what is its function?