Eckert/ study guide/China
- After years of war, what major construction project helped unify China during the Sui Dynasty? The Grand Canal
2. The Chinese rulers preferred Confucianism over Buddhism because it taught what? Confucianism taught about respect for family, leaders, and government. It also said to follow the rules and be active in society. This would allow them to maintain control over the Chinese easier than using Buddhism.
3. Which technological development immediately had an impacted on the Chinese? Woodblock printing was MOST influential to the economy and can be used immediately to print paper money. Paper Money can be spent in the economy and make it easier to buy things.
4. How did the Mongols rule over the Chinese? The Mongols took over the Chinese in the 1200s AD. They were very strong and fierce warriors and great horseback riders. During their reign, the Chinese were allowed to practice their own religion. However, the Mongols did get rid of the civil service exams but allowed the scholar officials that were in place to work as advisors. So they were strict but fair.
5. Who was Empress Wu? How did she help China? Empress Wu was an emperor of China during the Tang Dynasty. She did many things to improve China including reconstructing the Great Wall, taking back the Silk Road from invaders, and restoring the old government that used Civil service exams.
6. Who was Wendi? What did he do to help unify China? Wendi was a general that took over after the Han Dynasty. During his reign as emperor, he reconstructed the Great Wall after it was destroyed by invaders. He also began work on a new building project called the grand canal. This led to jobs and increase in protection. But also increase in taxes which led to poor people revolts.
7. Explain the civil service exams. Why would China want these? Civil service exams are the tests that anyone (even poor people) that, if past, could give them a job in the government. These tests seemed to be fair because all people were allowed to take them. However, most rich people passed them because they could afford tutors and practice.
8. What was the difference between confucianism and neo-confucianism? Neo-Confucianism is different from Confucianism because it not only does it include aspects of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism but it also included an afterlife. This was not previously included in Confucianism. They added an afterlife so that people would follow the philosophy their entire life which included following the government.
9. Why create a new form of confucianism? The reason the government of China made Neo-Confucianism is because too many people were converting to Buddhism. During this time, there was civil war happening and lots of suffering. People went to Buddhism because it talked about suffering and Confucianism did not. Creating a new form of Confucianism allowed people to live better and for something like Buddhism.
10. Name 5 Chinese inventions that changed the world. How did they affect China and Europe?
- Gunpowder- new weapons
- Printing- spread of education and writing
- Paper money- light weight and easy payment
- Compass- Better transportation/travel
- Calligraphy/porcelain- trade items that were highly desired
- Irrigation- more food/ population
11. Where were the Mongols from?
Steppes of Northern Asia/ Mongolia
12. Who was Ghengis Khan? What did he do in China?
He was the 1st leader of the Mongol Clans. He conquered the Northern part of China
13. Who was Kublai Khan? What did he do for China?
Grandson of Ghengis Khan. He got rid of the Civil exams but he opened the Silk Road up and allowed the practice of any religion.
14. Who was Marco Polo?
Italian/ European merchant who came to China via the Silk Road. He wrote down and experienced a lot of Chinese culture and brought it back to Europe.
15. Make sure you know the following vocabulary and the importance: steppes, porcelain, calligraphy, Neo-confuciansim, census, novels, barbaians. Steppes=dry, flat grasslands. Porcelain= fine clay baked at high temps. Calligraphy= fancy handwriting. Neo-Confucianism= a new form of Confucianism that included aspects of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism like an afterlife. Census= a record of population. Novels= a book. Barbarians= an uncivilized person.
16. Make sure you study the map of China. Explain how the geography of China affected the Chinese people. Geography made China protected but highly isolated.
17. How did the Chinese government use confucianism to control them?
The Chinese used Confucianism to maintain order because Confucianism taught that people should obey the government and respect the leaders and their rules.
18. Where did the tribes of the Mongols attack? Why?
The north because that was the weakest point in the Chinese borders.
19. How did the Ming dynasty reunify China after the Mongols?
The Ming brought back everything from previous governments such as civil exams, building projects, and confucianism.
20. How did exploration/ traders change China?
China wanted more territory for food so they started to explore. From this exploration, they got new spices, land, animals, and money. However, they also lost some of their culture.