CLASS XII POLITICAL SCIENCE MATERIAL
1 Marks questions:
16. Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation also called Western Alliance?
17. What is meant by Hegemony?
18. Which major factor was responsible for the dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi in
19. Name the three social and political regions of the Northern most State of India.
20. Why were the seven small states created in North-East India?
21. Why was the Warsaw Pact also called the ‗Eastern Alliance‘
22. What was ‗Operation Enduring Freedom‘?
23. Define „Bipolarity‟.
24. What was the main objective of „Operation Desert Storm‟ ?
25. How did the U.S. respond to the 9/11 attacks ?
26. Highlight any one major distinction between the Soviet economy and the
27. How far do you agree that the proclamation of emergency weakened the
federal distribution of power in India ?
28. Justify that “Regionalism is not as dangerous as Communalism”.
29. Why do some people feel that Article 370 should be revoked ?
30. Highlight any one consequence of ‘Shock Therapy.’
31. Explain hegemony as a soft power.
32. What is the full form of ‘SEATO’ ?
33. Highlight any one main feature of the U.S. economy.
35. How is „bandwagon‟ strategy beneficial within the hegemonic system?
36. Why is the period from 1989 to 2014 called an era of coalition governments in
37. Justify the abolition of Privy Purpose for bringing about economic equality.
38. Why should popular movments not be discouraged?
39. How far can Shock Therapy be called the best way to make the transition from
communism to Capitalism?
40. What does „ASEAN Way‟ stand for?
41. Explain the origin of Congress Syndicate.
42. Highlight the main objective of SAARC.
43. The phrase „Aya Ram, Gaya Ram‟ refers to which drawback of the Indian
44. Inspite of possessing nuclear power, why didn’t both the super powers go for a full-fledged war?
45. Why was the ‘First Gulf War’ called a ‘Computer War’ ?
46. Give an example to illustrate the globalization of services.
47. How far was it justified on the part of India to give asylum to Dalai Lama and a large
number of Tibetans ?
48. Which two major tasks were given to the Mandal Commission ?
49. Why did the super powers decide to collaborate in limiting or eliminating nuclear
50. Why was the ‘First Gulf War’ called the ‘Video Game War’ ?
51. Give an example to show that events taking place in one part of the world could have
an impact on another part of the world.
52. What was the impact of the Sino-Indian conflict of 1962 on the Communist Party of
53. When did the era of coalition Governments start at the Centre in India and why ?
54. What is meant by ―9/ 11‖ i n the context of U. S.A. ?
55. Correct the foll owi ng state ment and re write:
ASEAN stands for ―Associ ati on of Sout h East Af ri can Nati on‖.
56. Ho w many Per manent me mbers and how many Non- per manent Me mbers does
the U. N. security Council have?
57. What is meant by ―Security‖. ?
58. What is the ―Two nati on Theory‖ advanced by the Musli m League?
59. Na me t he founder President of the Congress Soci alist party. What na me was
gi ve to this Party after 1948. ?
60. After whi ch General Electi on i n Indi a di d Congress Party l ose it do mi nance for
the first ti me at the Centre. ?
61. After the deat h of Lal Bahadur Shastri, whi ch two leaders of the Congress
Part y contested agai nst one anot her to beco me leader of the Congress
parli ament ary party. ?
62. Na me t he popul ar move ment whi ch de manded that no forest expl oiti ng
contract shoul d be gi ven to any outsi der ?
63. Na me whi ch year di d the era of Coalition Governments at the Centre begi n i n
Indi a ?
64. Na me t he political party of Indi a whi ch was founded by Acharya
Narendra Dev before i ndependence.
65. What is meant by ‗ Congress Syndi cate‘?
66. Me nti on any one objective of the United Nati ons.
67. The States of whi ch region of Indi a are referred to as the ‗Seven
68. Whe n was Constituti on of Indi a ready and si gned by me mbers of
Constituent Asse mbl y? Whe n di d it co me i nto effect?
69. What is meant by Pri vy Purse?
70. Me nti on any one function of the Worl d Bank.
71. Me nti on any one poi nt of agree ment i ncl uded in t he Raji v
Gandhi- Longowal Accord.
82.Why was the ‘operation desert storm’ fought against Iraq?
83.What is the full form of SAARC?
84.State any one important objective of the United Nations?
85.What is meant by disarmament?
86.Mention the main recommendation of the State Reorganization Commission of 1953?
87.Who was the founder of Bharatiya Jana Sangh?
88.Which two political parties were the major partners in the ruling alliance after the 1971 General Elections to the Lok Sabha?
89.Name the political party which came to power at the centre in 1977.
90.Mention the two main demands of the Bharatiya Kisan Union in 1980s.
91.Name the two alliances/fronts that formed the Government at the centre in 1989 and 1996 respectively.
92. Who controls the north-eastern part of Sri Lanka ?
93. Mention any two Human Rights in the political field.
94. During the first three general elections, Congress won more seats
than any other party. Which party stood at number two during these
95. Why was the Congress Party defeated during the elections of 1977 ?
96.Mention the names of any two member states of SAARC.
97.What is meant by strategy of hide?
98.How many judges are there in the International Court of Justice?What is there tenure?
99.How is balance of power a component of traditional security?
100.What was P.C Mahalanobis famous for?
101.Which political party emerged as the largest opposition party in the first general election of free India?
102.What was congress syndicate?
103.Mention any one finding of the Shah Commission of inquery?
104.What is meant by party-based movements?
105.Which region of India is referred to as Seven Sisters?
2 Marks Questions:
1. What constrained the Super Powers to go for a full-fledged war inspite of
having nuclear weapons?
2. Assess the role of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad towards maintaining communal
harmony in India.
3. Match the following in Column ‘A’ with those in Column ‘B’ in a meaningful
Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
(i) Head of the Commission of Enquiry (a) Chowdhary Charan Singh
(ii) Deputy Prime Minister of India from (b) Jagjiwan Ram
1967 to 1969
(iii) Deputy Prime Minister of India from (c) J.C. Shah
(iv) Union Minister of India from 1952-1977 (d) Morarji Desai
4. What was ‘Operation’ Blue Star’? Why did it hurt the sentiments of the Sikh
5. Why and how did the Mizo Movement for secession gain popular support?
6. Mention any two of the agreements signed between the two super powers
starting in the 1960s.
7. Name any four founders of NAM and the countries they belonged to
8. Mention any two major military features of the Cold War.
9. “The leaders of the newly independent India did not see politics as a problem;
they saw it as a way of solving the problems.” How far do you agree with the
10. Match the following :
(a) A politically controversial
(i) Charu Mjumdar
(b) Led the Railway strike in 1974 (ii) Jayaprakash Narayan
(c) Declined to join Nehru’s Cabinet (iii) George Fernandes
(d) Died in police custody (iv) Justice A.N. Ray
11. While the rest of the country was reorganized on linguistic lines in 1950s, why
had Punjab to wait till 1966 ?
12. How was the reorganization of North-East India completed and by when ?
13. What is meant by the Cuban Missile Crisis ?
14. Which two ideologies were involved in a conflict during the Cold War era and
15. Mention any two reasons for the emergence of a Cold War situation after the
Second World War.
16. Analyse the circumstances that compelled the Communist Party of India to go
for a split in 1964.
17. Match the following in a meaningful way:
(Nature of regional aspirations) (States)
(a) Socio-religious identity leading to statehood. (i) Mizoram
(b) Linguistic identity and tension with centre. (ii) Jharkhand
(c) Regional imbalance leading to demand for statehood. (iii) Punjab
(d) Secessionist demands on account of tribal identity. (iv) Tamil Nadu
18. Assess the Rajiv Gandhi – Longowal Accord as a step towards bringing
normalcy to Punjab.
19. Why is it said that the story of Nagaland is similar to that of Mizoram ?
20. What was the strength of the non-aligned countries as mediators between the
21. Why is it said that the story of Nagaland is similar to that of Mizoram ?
22. What is the attitude of the neutral states towards war?
23. What is meant by the Cuba Missile Crisis?
24. Suggest any two steps to be taken by the government to check pollution and save
25. “Welfare State is getting replaced by market.” Analyse the reason for this
26. How did the Sino-Indian conflict affect the opposition also?
27. How did the dominance of Congress Party in the first three general elections
help in establishing a democratic set-up in India?
28. Mention any two benefits of globalisation.
29. Suggest any two measures to have good relations with Pakistan.
30. Which characteristics made the Congress an ideological coalition during the
freedom movement of India ?
31. Identify the most important outcome of the Rio Summit.
32. How was the U.S. benefited by the Soviet disintegration ?
33. Mention any four political parties of India which participated in the first three
34. Suggest any two measures to protect your surroundings from pollution.
35. The critics of globalisation want which two areas to be revived economically?
36. Why did the one-party system, represented by the Communist Party, become a
source of dissent and dissatisfaction among the Soviet people?
37. Explain any adverse economic impact of Nuclear Weapons.
38. What is meant by Shock Therapy ?
39. Assess the situation which compelled Mahatma Gandhi not to participate in any of
the Independence Day celebrations on 15th August, 1947.
40. What was the theoretical argument in defence of the concept of non-congressism as
given by Ram Manohar Lohia ?
41. Highlight any two most novel aspects of the Chipko Movement.
42. Why was Sikkim called a ‘protectorate’ of India ?
43. Who toppled the Berlin Wall and when ?
44. Distinguish between the ideologies of the Left parties and the Rightists regarding
45. What was the main objective of building the Berlin Wall ? What did it symbolize ?
46. Analyse the main reason for the failure of Indian planning and the agrarian strategy in
solving the massive problem of rural poverty.
47. What was the main reason for the revival of economies of the most of the former
Soviet Republics ?
48. ‘The end of the paramountcy of the British crown over 565 Princely States.’ What
does the statement imply ?
49. Explain the issue ‘Indira Vs. the Syndicate’.
50. How did the farmers associated with Bharatiya Kisan Union differ from most other
farmers in India ?
51. Give any two examples to show that the federal system adopted by India is a flexible
52. What is meant by a multi-polar world order as visualized by India and Russia ?
53. When and why did the Election Commission of India start using, Electronic Voting
54. Mention any two benefits to India from its relationship with Russia.
55. Assess the role played by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad towards maintaining communal
harmony in India.
56. Na me t he t wo superpowers responsi ble for Col d War. When di d the worl d
beco me uni pol ar ?
57. Whe n was the ASEAN Regi onal forum established ? What was it mai n
objecti ve ?
58. Expl ai n the traditi onal concept of ―Security‘?
59. Why are Internati onal Organi zati ons li ke the U. N. requi red ?
60. Whi ch four Pri ncel y states of Indi a i niti all y resisted to joi n the Indi an Uni on ?
61. Whi ch are the t wo models of devel opment ? Whi ch model of devel opment was
adopted by Indi a ?
62. What is Indi a‘s policy of Non- ali gnment ?
63. Me nti on any t wo issues of concern rel ated to devel opment al projects such as
Sardar Sarovar project.
64. Hi ghli ght any t wo recomme ndati ons of the Mandal Co mmi ssi on.
65. What is meant by ‗ Operati on Enduri ng Freedom ‗ ?
66. Hi ghli ght the i mportance of popul ar move ments.
67. Bef ore 1971, whi ch t wo reasons were a source of resent ment
a mong t he peopl e of East Pakistan ( now Bangladesh) against West Pakistan ?
68. Me nti on any t wo de mands of the Bharati ya Ki san Uni on
79. Name any two foreign leaders, along with the countries they belonged to,
who are recognised as the founders of the Non-aligned Movement.
80. Trace the evolution process of the European Union.
81. Mention any two functions of the World Bank.
82. Highlight any two threats to a country’s security as per the traditional
notion of security.
83. Identify any two consequences of the partition of India in 1947.
84. Differentiate between the capitalist and the socialist models of
85. Highlight the contribution made by Jawaharlal Nehru to the foreign
policy of India.
86. What does the special status given to Jammu and Kashmir under
Article 370 mean ?
87. How does party-based movement differ from non-party movement ?
88. Which organisation came into existence in April 1949 ?
89. What was ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ launched by the United States
of America ?
90. In spite of token representation in the Indian legislatures during the
fifties, what role did the opposition parties play ?
91. Highlight any two characteristics of the Dravidian Movement.
92.Define cold war.
93.Mention any two consequences of Shock Therapy.
94.State any one way to overcome hegemony.
95.Write the full form of SAARC.Mention the name of its two smallest member-countries.
96.Highlight any two environmental concerns of global politics.
97.Mention any two challenges faces by India at the time of Independence.
98.Why were some land-reforms not successful in India.
99.When and by whom was Panchsheel enunciated?
100.What was the outcome of the Assam Accord of 1985?
101.Which action of the Government of India threatened the fish workers lives in a big way?Which organization did they form at the national level?
4 Marks Questions:
1. In which four ways did the new economic policy of China benefit its economy ?
2. What is Amnesty International ? State its main functions.
3. What are ‘global commons’ ? Why is it said that international cooperation over
the global commons is not easy ?
4. What distinguished the dominance of the Congress Party in India from other
examples of one party dominance in other countries ? Explain.
5. Critically examine the major outcomes of the Indian model of mixed economy.
6. How did Janata Party make the 1977 elections into a referendum on the
Emergency imposed in 1975 ? Explain.
7. Mention any four significant changes in Indo-China relations that have taken
place after the Cold War.
8. What is the full form of W.T.O. ? When was it set up ? How does it function ?
9. “The Indian Government is already participating in global efforts through a
number of programmes related to environmental issues.” Give any four
examples to support the statement.
10. Highlight the circumstances that compelled the socialists to form a separate
Socialist Party in 1948. Mention any two grounds on which they criticized the
11. While the Chinese economy has improved dramatically, why has every Chinese
not received the benefits of the reforms ? Give any four reasons.
12. Why do some countries question the issue of India’s inclusion as a permanent
member of the U.N. Security Council ? Explain.
13. Explain the role of Environmental Movements to meet the challenge of
14. How did the coalition-like character of the Congress Party give it an unusual
15. Describe any four long term implications of the conflict of 1962 between India
16. What does IAEA stand for? When was it established? Mention its two major
17. Highlight any four environmental concerns which fall within the scope of
contemporary world politics.
18. How did the methods of voting in India go on changing from time to time till
19. Examine the circumstances responsible for reducing the salience of State-led
economic development in India.
20. What led to the downfall of the Janata Government and holding of fresh Lok
Sabha elections in January, 1980 ? Explain the circumstances.
21. Why did China adopt Soviet model of economy? In which two ways was China
benefitted by this model ?
22. Describe terrorism as a new source of threat to security.
23. What was Kyoto protocol? Why were China, India and other developing
countries exempted from Kyoto Protocol?
24. Explain the contribution of the Communist party of India in Indian politics since
independence upto its split in 1964.
25. Mention the four main objectives of ASEAN Economic Community.
26. What is meant by Veto Power ? Which countries enjoy this power and why?
27. Who formed the Bhartiya Jana Sangh and when ? How was it different from
other political parties of India ?
28. Describe India – China relations from 1947 to 1962.
29. What is Human Rights Watch? Describe its main contribution to the field of
30. What was the ‘Earth Summit’? How far did the summit prove to be useful?
31. Explain any four reasons for the dominance of Congress Party in the first
three general elections in India.
32. Examine the conditions responsible for the growth of Naxalite Movement in
India. Suggest ways and means to crush it.
33. Inspite of the improvement in the Chinese economy, there have been
negative consequences affecting the people of China. Mention any four such
34. What is meant by alliance building as a component of traditional security
policy? What are its advantages?
35. Explain the concept of “Common property resource” with the help of an
example from India.
36. Explain the functioning of the Congress Party as an ideological and social