EnglishHonors ChemistryFinal Exam Review Guide
Chemistry Final Exam Review Guide Honors 2013-4
The final exam will assess the knowledge and skills you developed through the entire year (Unit 0-8) because the concepts and skills learned during the first semester are put in use in concepts developed in the second semester. This document provides you with a summary of the learning objectives that will be assessed in the final exam. Here are some items to study and review.
- Learning Objectives from each unit
- Unit Reviews (Unit 0-8)
- Formative assessments in each unit
- Unit tests (available to you during afterschool help sessions and the review day)
- Worksheets and handouts
- Lab reports and notes
Unit 0-1 Physical Properties of Matter – Simple Particle Model
- Correct scale reading and uncertainty
- Recognize the number of significant figures in a given measured value.
- Round off calculated values to the appropriate number of significant figures.
- Convert between quantities in metric units using dimensional analysis.
- Correctly using scientific notation when appropriate.
- Recognize density is a characteristic property of matter.
- Identify substances using density
- Interpret a Mass-Volume graph
- Recognize density is a proportion between mass and volume and can be used as a factor label to convert between mass and volume.
Unit 2 Energy and States of Matter Part 1
1.States of matter
- Describe the characteristics of solids, liquids and gases in terms of particles and their arrangement.
- Use particle diagrams to account for motion and density differences.
- Describe how the arrangement of particles changes during phase changes.
2.Energy and Kinetic Molecular Theory
- Relate temperature to the kinetic energy (Ek) of particles in motion.
- Explain, at the particle level, how a thermometer measures the temperature of the system.
- Recognize the basic tenets of Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT).
- Describe how a mercury barometer measures atmosphere pressure.
- Determine the pressure of an enclosed gas from the manometer display.
- Apply features of gas particles and the concept of pressure to explain observations.
- Predict the effect of changing P, V, n or T on any of the other variables.
- Explain (in terms of the collisions of particles) why the change has the effect you predicted.
- Use factors to calculate the new P, V or T. Make a decision as to how the change affects the variable you are looking for. (PVnT table)
Unit 3 Energy and States of Matter Part 2
1.States of matter
- Describe the characteristics of solids, liquids and gases in terms of particles arrangement and attractions
2.Energy storage and transfer
- Define energy and describe ways of how energy is stored in a system and how energy is transferred between system and surroundings.
- Draw and interpret energy bar diagrams to account for energy storage and transfer in all sorts of physical changes.
- Identify what phase(s) is/are present in each portion of the curve.
- Identify energy in which storage mode is changing for each portion of the curve.
- Relate energy bar diagrams to any points along the curve.
- Draw and interpret heating/cooling curve of a substance from the given melting and boiling temperatures.
- State the meaning of the heat of fusion (Hf) and heat of vaporization (Hv) for a given substance. Use these factors to relate the mass of a substance to the energy absorbed or released during a phase change. (at melting/boiling temperature)
- State the meaning of the heat capacity (c) of a substance and use this factor to relate mass and temperature changes to the energy absorbed or released during a change in temperature (with no phase change).
- Calculate total energy absorbed or released during a process involving both phase changes and temperature changes. (draw heating/cooling curve to help)
Unit 4 Describing Substances – Particles have internal structure
1.Representing types of substances
- Distinguish mixtures from pure substances, elements from compounds, molecular compounds from ionic compounds, atoms from molecules based on the characteristics of each.
- Recognize different types of substances in given particle diagrams.
- State key ideas in Dalton’s atomic theory.
- State the Law of definite composition and cite evidence to support that some pure substances are “compounded” of simpler particles in a definite ratio.
- Apply Lavoisier’s law of mass conservation to determine percent mass composition of a compound from given mass data.
- State Avogadro’s Hypothesis and use it to deduce the formulas of some compounds.
- Name elements from symbols and write symbols from names.
- Recognize elements as metal, nonmetal, transition metal, and semimetals.
- Recognize the family name for 4 groups: alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, halogens and noble gases.
Unit 5 “How Much” to “How Many” – Counting Particles Too Small to See
1.Relative mass, mole and molar mass
- Determine relative masses of objects from experimental data and state the meaning.
- Define one mole (using hydrogen, but know the modern definition by carbon-12).
- Describe how molar mass of a substance is obtained from the relative mass (using hydrogen as reference).
- Determine molar mass of a substance from the relative mass in the periodic table.
- Relate Avogadro’s number to mole
- Convert between mole, mass and number of particles of a given substance using factor labeling.
2.Empirical and Molecular Formulas
- Determine the empirical formula of a substance from the given composition data.
- Determine the molecular formula of a substance from the empirical formula and the given molar mass.
Unit 6 Internal structure of the atom
- Describe a model of the atom that accounts for the fact that neutral particles can become either positively or negatively charged (Thomson’s plum pudding model).
- Cite experimental evidence from J.J. Thomson’s experiments that supported his atomic model.
- Apply the above atomic model to explain the observed interactions between the tapes, foil and paper in the Sticky Tape Lab.
- Cite observable evidence that distinguishes molecular compounds and ionic compounds.
- Cite observable evidence for (+) charged metal ions and (-) charged nonmetal ions. Give atomic level explanations. (electrolysis of CuCl2 solution)
- Differentiate atomic, molecular and ionic solids by their lattice structures. Relate the structures to their properties such as melting and boiling points.
- Compare and contrast ionic and molecular compounds at atomic level and relate to their properties.
- Write formulas of compounds from given names and name compounds from given formulas (a polyatomic ion chart will be provided).
- Identify if a compound is molecular or ionic from its name or formula.
Unit 7 Representing Chemical Change – Chemical Reactions and Energy
1.Representing chemical reactions
- Recognize that chemical changes involve rearranging atoms to form new substances.
- Recognize that the total number of atoms does not change during a chemical reaction but the total number of molecules may. Give reasoning for both.
- Balance a given reaction equation or write complete (including states of matter) balanced chemical equations from word descriptions of reactions.
- Describe reactions both macroscopically (according to observations) and microscopically
- Describe how a reaction proceeds at atomic level both in words and by particle diagrams. (electron transfer, spectator ion, molecules break down into atoms and recombine, etc.)
- Cite observable evidence from lab experiments (nail lab) to support description of reaction process at atomic level.
2.Patterns of reactions
- Describe characteristics of the five basic patterns in the way substances react and classify reactions based on these characteristics.
- Predict reaction products for combustion, single and double replacement reactions.
3.Energy in chemical reactions
- Recognize exo- or endothermic reactions based on observations.
- Write the energy term on the correct side of the reaction equation and give reasoning.