The Check Sheet is a simple document that is used for collecting data in real-time and at the location where the data is generated. The document is typically a blank form that is designed for the quick, easy, and efficient recording of the desired information, which can be either quantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the checksheet is sometimes called a tally sheet.
A defining characteristic of a checksheet is that data is recorded by making marks ("checks") on it. A typical checksheet is divided into regions, and marks made in different regions have different significance. Data is read by observing the location and number of marks on the sheet. 5 Basic types of Check Sheets:
- Classification: A trait such as a defect or failure mode must be classified into a category.
- Location: The physical location of a trait is indicated on a picture of a part or item being evaluated.
- Frequency: The presence or absence of a trait or combination of traits is indicated. Also number of occurrences of a trait on a part can be indicated.
- Measurement Scale: A measurement scale is divided into intervals, and measurements are indicated by checking an appropriate interval.
- Check List: The items to be performed for a task are listed so that, as each is accomplished, it can be indicated as having been completed.
Examples of Check Sheets:
Ishikawa Diagrams are diagrams that show the causes of a certain event. A common use of the Ishikawa diagram is in product design, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect.
Ishikawa diagrams were proposed by Kaoru Ishikawain the 1960s, who pioneered quality management processes in the Kawasaki shipyards, and in the process became one of the founding fathers of modern management.
It can also be called fishbone diagram when the shape of the diagram is similar to the side view of a fish skeleton.
Causes in the diagram are often based on a certain set of causes. Cause-and-effect diagrams can reveal key relationships among various variables, and the possible causes provide additional insight into process behavior.
Causes should be derived from brainstorming sessions. Then causes should be sorted through affinity-grouping to collect similar ideas together. These groups should then be labeled as categories of the fishbone. They will typically be one of the traditional categories mentioned above but may be something unique to our application of this tool. Causes should be specific, measurable, and controllable.
Mazda Motors famously used an Ishikawa diagram in the development of the Miata (MX-5 inEurope) sports car, where the required result was "Jinba Ittai" or "Horse and Rider as One". The main causes included such aspects as "touch" and "braking" with the lesser causes including highly granular factors such as "50/50 weight distribution" and "able to rest elbow on top of driver's door". Every factor identified in the diagram was included in the final design.
Example of a fishbone Ishikawa Diagram:
The Pareto Principle (also known as the 80-20 rule) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20percent of the causes. Business management thinker Joseph M. Juran suggested the principle and named it after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, who observed that 80percent of the land in Italy was owned by 20percent of the population. It is a common rule of thumb in business; e.g., "80percent of your sales come from 20percent of your clients".In Juran's initial work he identified 20 percent of the defects causing 80 percent of the problems. Project Managers know that 20 percent of the work (the first 10 percent and the last 10 percent) consume 80 percent of your time and resources. You can apply the 80/20 Rule to almost anything, from the science of management to the physical world.
Mathematically, where something is shared among a sufficiently large set of participants, there will always be a number k between 50 and 100 such that k% is taken by (100 − k)% of the participants. However, k may vary from 50 in the case of equal distribution to nearly 100 when a tiny number of participants account for almost all of the resource. There is nothing particularly special about the number 80, but many systems will have k somewhere around this region of intermediate imbalance in distribution.
20 percent of your stock takes up 80 percent of your warehouse space and that 80 percent of your stock comes from 20 percent of your suppliers.
80 percent of your sales will come from 20 percent of your sales staff. 20 percent of your staff will cause 80 percent of your problems, but another 20 percent of your staff will provide 80 percent of your production.It works both ways.