Puritans Group of English Protestants Who Settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony

Puritans Group of English Protestants Who Settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony

US History

Fort Burrows

Chapter 4Review w/ Answers


Puritans – group of English Protestants who settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony

General Court – elected representatives assembly in the Massachusetts Bay Colony

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – a 1639 plan of government in the Puritan colony in

Connecticut; expanded the idea of representatives government in the English colonies

religious tolerance – willingness to let others practice their own beliefs

Sabbath – holy day of rest

town meeting – meeting in colonial New England where settlers discussed and voted on issues

enterprise – a project or venture that is difficult or risky

cornerstone – a fundamental principle

foreshadow – to hint at or suggest something that will happen in the future

fallow – cultivated land that is allowed to lie idle during the growing season

luddite – one that is opposed to, especially technological, changes


proprietary colony – land given to one or more people by the King for a yearly payment (rent)

royal colony – a colony under the direct control of the English crown

oppression – unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power

refuge – a place that provides shelter or protection

promote – to contribute to the growth or prosperity of

repository – a place where large amounts of something is stored


Mason-Dixon Line – boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland that divided the Middle Colonies from the Southern Colonies

Bacon’s Rebellion – a 1676 raid led by Nathaniel Bacon against the governor and Native Americans in Virginia

indigo – plant used to make a valuable blue dye

slave code – laws that control the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights

racism – belief that one race is superior to another

trustee – person who is authorized to administer property for the benefit of another person or group

buffer – something that serves as a protective barrier

pacifist – a person strongly opposed to war

hold – the interior of a ship below the decks

incertitude – absence of assurance or confidence; doubt


mercantilism – theory that a nation becomes strong by keeping strict control over its colonial trade

export – trade products sent to markets outside of a country

import – trade products brought into a country

Navigation Acts – one-sided laws regulating trade between England and her colonies

triangular trade – colonial trade route between New England, West Indies, and Africa

legislature – group of people who have the power to make laws

Bill of Rights – first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution

English Bill of Rights – a document that guaranteed the rights of English citizens

midwife – a skilled worker who assists women in child birth

hymm – a song to be sung in a religious service

parish – a local church community


gentry – highest class in the 13 English colonies

middle class – a class that included skilled craftsworkers, farmers that owned their land, and some tradespeople (3:4 whites were middle class)

indentured servant – a person that agreed to work for 4 to 7 years in return for paid passage to the colonies in the Americas

Great Awakening – a dramatic and emotional religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730 and 1740s

tutor – private teachers

apprentice – person who learns a trade or craft from a master

Enlightenment – movement in Europe that emphasized the use of reason and logic

libel – act of publishing a statement that may unjustly damage a person’s reputation

dominated – ruled or controlled

bribe – money or a favor given to influence someone in a position of power

contract – a binding agreement between two or more persons or parties

sue – to seek enforcement of a law or a contract in a court of law

Know the dates and descriptions of the following terms:

English Bill of Rights -- 1689 a document that guaranteed the rights of English citizens

House of Burgesses – 1619 marked the beginning of representative government in the English colonies, HOB

Massachusetts Bay Colony -- 1630 expanded vote to male stockholders and male church members and

elected representatives to an assembly called the General Court

Magna Carta -- 1215 British document that stated citizens have basic rights and monarchs have to obey the law

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut -- 1639 plan of government in Puritan colony which expanded the idea of representative government

Mayflower Compact -- 1620 agreement by Pilgrims for ruling Plymouth to ensure the general good of colony

1. Where were the 13 original colonies located ? Atlantic Ocean

2. Why did New England colonies rely heavily on trade for their economic activity ?

Cold climate and poor rocky soil made farming unprofitable

  1. Why did the Puritans leave England ? Religious freedoms
  2. What caused people in the Massachusetts colony to leave ?

Religious beliefs and the way the colony was being governed was being questioned

5. What caused theNative Americans to go to war withthe Puritans?

The colonists weretaking over Native American land

6. What was the importance of the ‘common’ style set-up in New England towns and villages?

Encouraged meetings and sharing of ideas to promote a tight-knit community

7. What caused the colony of New Netherland to become the colony of New York ?

King Charles II of England renamed the colony in the Duke of York’s honor

8. What caused the separation of the New Jersey colony from the New York colony ?

Colony was too big to govern easily

9. How was Pennsylvania founded ?

King Charles II grantedland to Penn and his Quakers for religious freedom

10. Describe what life was like in the Middle Colonies ?

1. fertile soil and cash crops

2. iron ore in river valley

3. wood resources in backcountry

11. What are slave codes ? Rules for slaves’ behavior

12. How was Maryland important to the Roman Catholic religion ?

Catholics could practice their religion freely

13. Whofounded the Carolinas ? 8 English nobles

14. Which colony was founded for English Debtors ? Georgia

15. Describe the differences in the Tidewater Region and the Backcountry Region ?

Tidewater RegionBackcountry Region

1. Large plantations1. Small farms

2. Slavery2. Little to no slavery

16. What caused the increase in slavery in the 1700s ?

Plantations had to maintain supply of slaves to work the crops

17. List 3 reasons why England wanted to regulate colonial trade ?

1. colonies should benefit the home country

2. nations become strong by keeping strict control over its trade

3. to ensure only England would benefit from colonial trade

18. Describe the colonial legislature (government) ?

Legislature had two houses – upper (appointed) and lower (elected)

19. Describe the differences in liberties between the female colonists ?

Unmarried women and widows had more rights than married women

20. Name the 3 classesin colonial society ?

1. Gentry 2. Middle class 3. Indentured servant

21. Describe how the Great Awakening affected the colonies ?

1. forced colonists to be more tolerant of different beliefs

2. contributed to the spread of democratic feelings in colonies

3. people began to think differently about political rights and governments

22. What was unique about how New Englandcolonists educated their children ?

Set-up school supported by taxes

23. How did the Middle and Southerncolonists educate their children ?

  1. Apprenticeships2. private schools3. dame schools

24. Why was Enlightenment important to new ideas ?

They used ‘reason’ and ‘logic’to improve their ‘New World’

25. New Englandcolonieseconomy was based on ?

  1. Whaling2. Shipbuilding3. sawmill ports

26. Rice, indigo and tobacco plantations were important to which colonies ? Southern Colonies

27. The Middle Colonies’ economy was based on?

  1. Farming2. Ranching3. skilled artisans/crafts

28. Name 3 issues addressed in the English Bill of Rights signed by William and Mary of New Netherlands in 1689 ?

1.Protected the rights of individuals

2. Stated ruler could not raise taxes or army without approval from Parliament

3. Gave anyone accused of crime the right to a trial by jury

29. Which four colonies made up the Middle Colonies ?

  1. New York2. Pennsylvania
  2. Delaware 4. New Jersey

30. Which four colonies made up the New England Colonies ?

  1. Rhode Island2. New Hampshire
  2. Connecticut4. Massachusetts

31. Which five colonies made up the Southern Colonies ?

  1. Georgia2. North Carolina3. South Carolina 4. Maryland 5. Virginia

32. What 3 continentswere part of the Triangular Trade ?

1.America/West Indies2. West Africa3. Europe /New England

33. Puritan male church members elected representatives to an assembly in the Massachusetts Bay Colonycalled ? General Court

34. Describe educational opportunities between the colonies ?

in the majority of colonies, only boys could attend school

35. What changes did the Great Awakening have on the colonial people regarding thoughts about

themselves and their political rights ?

it caused the average citizen to think they should be more independent

36. Whatcaused the right to vote to be expanded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, MBC ?

colonist wanted a voice in their government

37. Sharpshooters from Pennsylvania boasted that with the “Pennsylvania Rifle”, they could

‘hit a rattlesnake between the eyes at 100 yards.’ How could this benefit future colonists ?

this skill allowed them to be very good soldiers during the American Revolution

38. Describe the relationship between South Carolina’s economy and rice crops ?

swampy lowlands along the coast

39. Which colony and its’ colonial leader would have said, “… government should not have any influence on religion or support a particular church.” concerning the question of relationship between colonial government and established colonial religion … ?

said by Roger Williams of Rhode Island

40. List agreements and disagreements between the religions of Pilgrim and Puritan

1. Both were unhappy with Church of England’s rules and laws

2. Both were in Massachusetts

3. Disagreed on whether to reform or to separate from the Church of England

41. What brought settlers to New Amsterdam ?

they came for economic opportunities

42. Why did so many of the people from Germany, called Pennsylvania Dutch,

choose to settle in William Penn’s colony ?

they came for a new religious experience

43. Who was Oglethorpe’s colony of Georgia created for ?

it offered imprisoned peoples a new place to live

44. What was a significant cause of King Phillip’s War ?

large numbers of settlers were living on lands the Wampanoag claimed

45. What factors most encouraged Parliament to pass the Navigation Acts ?

1. to control the economy of its’ colony

2. to make huge profit from agricultural cash crops

1 of 8th Grade Chapter 4 Review w/ Answers  July 2016