Chapter 4Review w/ Answers
Puritans – group of English Protestants who settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony
General Court – elected representatives assembly in the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – a 1639 plan of government in the Puritan colony in
Connecticut; expanded the idea of representatives government in the English colonies
religious tolerance – willingness to let others practice their own beliefs
Sabbath – holy day of rest
town meeting – meeting in colonial New England where settlers discussed and voted on issues
enterprise – a project or venture that is difficult or risky
cornerstone – a fundamental principle
foreshadow – to hint at or suggest something that will happen in the future
fallow – cultivated land that is allowed to lie idle during the growing season
luddite – one that is opposed to, especially technological, changes
proprietary colony – land given to one or more people by the King for a yearly payment (rent)
royal colony – a colony under the direct control of the English crown
oppression – unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power
refuge – a place that provides shelter or protection
promote – to contribute to the growth or prosperity of
repository – a place where large amounts of something is stored
Mason-Dixon Line – boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland that divided the Middle Colonies from the Southern Colonies
Bacon’s Rebellion – a 1676 raid led by Nathaniel Bacon against the governor and Native Americans in Virginia
indigo – plant used to make a valuable blue dye
slave code – laws that control the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights
racism – belief that one race is superior to another
trustee – person who is authorized to administer property for the benefit of another person or group
buffer – something that serves as a protective barrier
pacifist – a person strongly opposed to war
hold – the interior of a ship below the decks
incertitude – absence of assurance or confidence; doubt
mercantilism – theory that a nation becomes strong by keeping strict control over its colonial trade
export – trade products sent to markets outside of a country
import – trade products brought into a country
Navigation Acts – one-sided laws regulating trade between England and her colonies
triangular trade – colonial trade route between New England, West Indies, and Africa
legislature – group of people who have the power to make laws
Bill of Rights – first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution
English Bill of Rights – a document that guaranteed the rights of English citizens
midwife – a skilled worker who assists women in child birth
hymm – a song to be sung in a religious service
parish – a local church community
gentry – highest class in the 13 English colonies
middle class – a class that included skilled craftsworkers, farmers that owned their land, and some tradespeople (3:4 whites were middle class)
indentured servant – a person that agreed to work for 4 to 7 years in return for paid passage to the colonies in the Americas
Great Awakening – a dramatic and emotional religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730 and 1740s
tutor – private teachers
apprentice – person who learns a trade or craft from a master
Enlightenment – movement in Europe that emphasized the use of reason and logic
libel – act of publishing a statement that may unjustly damage a person’s reputation
dominated – ruled or controlled
bribe – money or a favor given to influence someone in a position of power
contract – a binding agreement between two or more persons or parties
sue – to seek enforcement of a law or a contract in a court of law
Know the dates and descriptions of the following terms:
English Bill of Rights -- 1689 a document that guaranteed the rights of English citizens
House of Burgesses – 1619 marked the beginning of representative government in the English colonies, HOB
Massachusetts Bay Colony -- 1630 expanded vote to male stockholders and male church members and
elected representatives to an assembly called the General Court
Magna Carta -- 1215 British document that stated citizens have basic rights and monarchs have to obey the law
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut -- 1639 plan of government in Puritan colony which expanded the idea of representative government
Mayflower Compact -- 1620 agreement by Pilgrims for ruling Plymouth to ensure the general good of colony
1. Where were the 13 original colonies located ? Atlantic Ocean
2. Why did New England colonies rely heavily on trade for their economic activity ?
Cold climate and poor rocky soil made farming unprofitable
- Why did the Puritans leave England ? Religious freedoms
- What caused people in the Massachusetts colony to leave ?
Religious beliefs and the way the colony was being governed was being questioned
5. What caused theNative Americans to go to war withthe Puritans?
The colonists weretaking over Native American land
6. What was the importance of the ‘common’ style set-up in New England towns and villages?
Encouraged meetings and sharing of ideas to promote a tight-knit community
7. What caused the colony of New Netherland to become the colony of New York ?
King Charles II of England renamed the colony in the Duke of York’s honor
8. What caused the separation of the New Jersey colony from the New York colony ?
Colony was too big to govern easily
9. How was Pennsylvania founded ?
King Charles II grantedland to Penn and his Quakers for religious freedom
10. Describe what life was like in the Middle Colonies ?
1. fertile soil and cash crops
2. iron ore in river valley
3. wood resources in backcountry
11. What are slave codes ? Rules for slaves’ behavior
12. How was Maryland important to the Roman Catholic religion ?
Catholics could practice their religion freely
13. Whofounded the Carolinas ? 8 English nobles
14. Which colony was founded for English Debtors ? Georgia
15. Describe the differences in the Tidewater Region and the Backcountry Region ?
Tidewater RegionBackcountry Region
1. Large plantations1. Small farms
2. Slavery2. Little to no slavery
16. What caused the increase in slavery in the 1700s ?
Plantations had to maintain supply of slaves to work the crops
17. List 3 reasons why England wanted to regulate colonial trade ?
1. colonies should benefit the home country
2. nations become strong by keeping strict control over its trade
3. to ensure only England would benefit from colonial trade
18. Describe the colonial legislature (government) ?
Legislature had two houses – upper (appointed) and lower (elected)
19. Describe the differences in liberties between the female colonists ?
Unmarried women and widows had more rights than married women
20. Name the 3 classesin colonial society ?
1. Gentry 2. Middle class 3. Indentured servant
21. Describe how the Great Awakening affected the colonies ?
1. forced colonists to be more tolerant of different beliefs
2. contributed to the spread of democratic feelings in colonies
3. people began to think differently about political rights and governments
22. What was unique about how New Englandcolonists educated their children ?
Set-up school supported by taxes
23. How did the Middle and Southerncolonists educate their children ?
- Apprenticeships2. private schools3. dame schools
24. Why was Enlightenment important to new ideas ?
They used ‘reason’ and ‘logic’to improve their ‘New World’
25. New Englandcolonieseconomy was based on ?
- Whaling2. Shipbuilding3. sawmill ports
26. Rice, indigo and tobacco plantations were important to which colonies ? Southern Colonies
27. The Middle Colonies’ economy was based on?
- Farming2. Ranching3. skilled artisans/crafts
28. Name 3 issues addressed in the English Bill of Rights signed by William and Mary of New Netherlands in 1689 ?
1.Protected the rights of individuals
2. Stated ruler could not raise taxes or army without approval from Parliament
3. Gave anyone accused of crime the right to a trial by jury
29. Which four colonies made up the Middle Colonies ?
- New York2. Pennsylvania
- Delaware 4. New Jersey
30. Which four colonies made up the New England Colonies ?
- Rhode Island2. New Hampshire
- Connecticut4. Massachusetts
31. Which five colonies made up the Southern Colonies ?
- Georgia2. North Carolina3. South Carolina 4. Maryland 5. Virginia
32. What 3 continentswere part of the Triangular Trade ?
1.America/West Indies2. West Africa3. Europe /New England
33. Puritan male church members elected representatives to an assembly in the Massachusetts Bay Colonycalled ? General Court
34. Describe educational opportunities between the colonies ?
in the majority of colonies, only boys could attend school
35. What changes did the Great Awakening have on the colonial people regarding thoughts about
themselves and their political rights ?
it caused the average citizen to think they should be more independent
36. Whatcaused the right to vote to be expanded in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, MBC ?
colonist wanted a voice in their government
37. Sharpshooters from Pennsylvania boasted that with the “Pennsylvania Rifle”, they could
‘hit a rattlesnake between the eyes at 100 yards.’ How could this benefit future colonists ?
this skill allowed them to be very good soldiers during the American Revolution
38. Describe the relationship between South Carolina’s economy and rice crops ?
swampy lowlands along the coast
39. Which colony and its’ colonial leader would have said, “… government should not have any influence on religion or support a particular church.” concerning the question of relationship between colonial government and established colonial religion … ?
said by Roger Williams of Rhode Island
40. List agreements and disagreements between the religions of Pilgrim and Puritan
1. Both were unhappy with Church of England’s rules and laws
2. Both were in Massachusetts
3. Disagreed on whether to reform or to separate from the Church of England
41. What brought settlers to New Amsterdam ?
they came for economic opportunities
42. Why did so many of the people from Germany, called Pennsylvania Dutch,
choose to settle in William Penn’s colony ?
they came for a new religious experience
43. Who was Oglethorpe’s colony of Georgia created for ?
it offered imprisoned peoples a new place to live
44. What was a significant cause of King Phillip’s War ?
large numbers of settlers were living on lands the Wampanoag claimed
45. What factors most encouraged Parliament to pass the Navigation Acts ?
1. to control the economy of its’ colony
2. to make huge profit from agricultural cash crops
1 of 8th Grade Chapter 4 Review w/ Answers July 2016