PHYSICAL FITNESS UNIT
I. Physical Fitness and You
A. Physical Fitness
1. the ability to carry out daily tasks easily and have enough reserve energy to respond to unexpected demands.
B. Benefits of Physical Fitness
1. Physical health
2. Mental/Emotional health
3. Social health
(Find characteristics for each on page 47)
C. Basic Components of Physical Fitness
1. Body composition
a. ratio of body fat to lean body tissue, including muscle, bone, water, and connective tissue such as ligaments, cartilage, and tendons.
a. the ability to move a body part through a full range of motion
3. Muscular strength
a. the amount of force a muscle can exert
4. Muscular endurance
a. the ability of the muscles to do different physical tasks over a period of time without causing fatigue.
5. Cardiorespiratory endurance
a. the ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of activity.
D. Measuring Body Composition
1. Appearance is probably one of the biggest reasons people exercise and watch what they eat.
2. Types of body composition measurements
a. Skinfold or pinch test (calipers used to measure thickness of skin)
b. Underwater weighing (not mentioned in the book, most accurate)
3. Males with 25 or more percent body fat and females with 30 or more percent body fat are at risk of developing cardiovascular problems.
4. Carrying to much weight also puts added stress on the skeletal system
E. Measuring Flexibility
1. Flexibility is important because it helps reduce muscle strains and lower back problems.
2. The sit and reach is a technique used to measure flexibility.
F. Measuring Muscular Strength
1. Muscular strength is vital to activities that involve lifting, pushing, or jumping.
2. When you have good muscular strength, you are able to perform daily tasks more efficiently.
3. The body has many different muscle groups, there are different measures of muscular strength.
G. Measuring Muscular Endurance
1. People with good muscular endurance generally have better posture and fewer back problems.
2. They are also better able to resist fatigue
3. A type of measurement for muscular endurance is leg lifts
H. Measuring Cardiorespiratory Endurance
1. One way to measure cardiorespiratory endurance is to find pulse recovery rate
2. A type of measurement for cardiorespiratory endurance is the 3 minute step test. Taking your pulse after participating in the activity.
II. Exercise and Fitness
A. Benefits of Exercise
1. Exercise provides health benefits that last a lifetime
2. It helps strengthen physical, mental, and social wellbeing of the health triangle
B. Benefits to Physical Health
1. Reduces feeling of chronic fatigue and stiffness
2. Improves motor responses
3. Strengthens the body’s muscles, skeleton, and other moving parts
4. Slows down osteoporosis
5. Enhances the body’s protection against disease by building up resistance
6. Recuperate faster
7. Improves functioning of the nervous system, circulatory system, and respiratory system.
C. Exercise and Weight Control
1. One out of every three American adults and one in five teens is overweight or obese.
2. Caused by a sedentary lifestyle
3. Overweight is related to two problems
b. Basal Metabolism
· You get energy from food, which is measured in units of heat called calories.
· The body burns calories during exercise
· The number of calories burned is determined by the activity
4. Your Weight
a. If you take in fewer calories than you burn, you lose weight
b. If you take in more calories than you burn, you gain weight
c. Obesity and overweight have both been linked to heart disease and can be a problem among people of all age groups
d. Vigorous exercise can help reduce body fat and contribute to weight reduction
D. Benefits of Mental and Emotional Health
1. Exercise can be a healthy outlet for tension, anger, or frustration
E. Benefits of Social Health
1. Because exercise makes you look and feel better and enhances self-esteem, it increases your preparedness to meet new people.
F. Improving Your Health-Related Fitness
1. The more muscles and joints your work, the greater the total health gain.
2. It is important to add variety to your exercise routine
a. Develops your total fitness
b. Places less strain on the body
c. Keeps from “burning out”
3. Improving Cardiorespiratory Endurance
a. Aerobic Exercise
· 20 – 30 Minutes of vigorous exercise
· Oxygen is continuously used
· Heart rate increases
· Jogging, swimming, dancing, cycling, and brisk walking
G. Improving Muscular Strength, Endurance, and Flexibility
1. Anaerobic Exercise
a. Intense bursts of activity
b. 20 – 30 seconds
c. Producing energy without using oxygen
d. Weight training, sprinting, and calisthenics
e. Types of resistance training
· Isometric training
· Isotonic training
· Isokinetic training
III. Planning a Fitness Program
A. Setting Fitness Goals
1. Planning a Fitness Program
2. Getting Started
B. Selecting the Right Activity
1. Where you live
2. Your range of interest
3. Your level of health
4. Time and place
5. Personal safety
6. Comprehensive planning
C. Cross - Training
1. Most sports require cross-training
2. Jumping rope, swimming, jogging, and cycling
D. Basics of an Exercise Program
1. Principles for an effective workout
2. The Warm-Up
a. Engaging in activity that prepares the muscles for the work that is to come
b. Raise your body temperature
c. Stretch large muscles slowly and smoothly
d. Prevents injuries
e. Perform activity slowly for about 5 minutes
3. The Workout ( F.I.T.)
· Workouts should be scheduled 3 – 4 times a week
· To improve fitness, you need to work your muscles and cardiorespiratory system at a level of intensity that permits you to achieve overload. To accomplish this goal, you must start slowly and build endurance
c. Duration / Time
· Spend 20 – 30 minutes of exercise at you target heart rate
4. The Cool – Down
a. Gradually decrease activity
b. Return gradually to less active state
c. Heart rate should be within 20 to 30 beats of your regular heart rate
E. Monitoring Your Progress
1. Your Resting Heart Rate
a. Number of times your heart beats in one minute when not active
b. Average for adults – 72 to 84 beats per minute
c. Average for teens – 40 beats per minute