Psych 101 Supplemental Instruction
Infancy & Cognitive Development: 11/17/15
Complete the following table according to Piaget’s Stages of developmentTypical Age Range / Stage / Characteristic Developmental Feature
Birth to 2 years / Sensorimotor / - Lack of Object Permanence: objects exist even when out of view
- A-not B Error
2 to 6 years / Pre-Operational / - Too young to perform mental operations
- Lack of Conservation: Mass/Volume remain same despite changes
- Egocentrism: Inability to take another person’s view
7 to 11 / Concrete Operational / - Can perform mental operations and understand their reversibility, but only with concrete examples.
- Apply logic only to objects, situations, or events that are likely to be real.
About 12 through adulthood / Formal Operational / - Children can work logically with abstract concepts.
- Beans in Jars example shows
Explain what the visual cliff experiment is and what did it show, be sure to include the role of emotion: Shows Social Referencing (we look to others to get info about how we should act when we are unsure) and by using this, emotion serves as a communication function. Everything we thought we knew about emotion is wrong!
Role of experience: Experienced crawlers not easily tricked
-Answers nature-nurture question, depth perception, fear of heights, etc.
Explain the A- not- B Error: If you give a baby an object hidden in place A, the baby searches and find it, you repeat, but then when placed in place B, they will still look in place A.
Define the following terms:
Critical Period - a specific time during which a baby has to experience stimuli in order to progress through developmental stages properly.
Stranger Anxiety – Infants become intensely attached to those who care for them, preferring familiar faces and voices. (7-8 months)
Conservation – Mass/Volume remain the same despite changes.
Egocentrism – Inability to take another person’s view.
Self-Concept - Self-concept is our perception or image of our abilities and our uniqueness. At first one's self-concept is very general and changeable... As we grow older, these self-perceptions become much more organized, detailed, and specific
Centration – Being able to only consider one dimension at a time
What are the 4 different automatic responses that can be seen in infants?
- Rooting: touch cheek and baby turns head to suck
- Moro: Drop baby and arms fling out and grab
- Grasping: touch palm, baby grabs (also toes)
- Babinski: fingernail from heal to toe, baby splays toes outward