File: Ch09, Chapter 9: Managers As Ethical Leaders and Role Models

File: Ch09, Chapter 9: Managers As Ethical Leaders and Role Models

Chapter 9: Managers as Ethical Leaders and Role Models

1. Which of the following aspects of daily organizational life significantly impact(s) an employee’s ethical performance?

a) the behaviors of organizational leaders

b) work goals

c) employee performance appraisals

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

2. Managers can and should serve as ______within the organization.

a) ethical role models

b) authoritarian leaders

c) ombudspersons

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

3. Research consistently indicates that the attribute employees most want to see in their managers is:

a) freedom

b) honesty

c) passion

d) hard work

e) none of the above

4. The type of ethical role model a manager chooses to be will reflect his/her level of:

a) skill

b) leadership

c) moral development

d) authority

e) none of the above

5. According to Torbert’s management role model typology, which of the following management types is most strongly motivated by reward and punishment?

a) opportunist

b) diplomat

c) achiever

d) strategist

e) none of the above

6. ______refers to the ability to act, create an effect, or wield force.

a) Leadership

b) Power

c) Strength

d) Morality

e) none of the above

7. Social psychologists French and Raven have differentiated among five types of power bases individuals can have based on which aspect?

a) status in the organization

b) level of seniority

c) relationship to others in the organization

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

8. Power that is formally assigned to an individual, such as through a title or position, is called ______power.

a) legitimate

b) reward

c) coercive

d) referent

e) expert

9. Power that is obtained in a way characterized by the following response is called ______power: “I’m going to do what that person says because I want to get a bonus and get promoted!”

a) legitimate

b) reward

c) coercive

d) referent

e) expert

10. Power obtained by enforcing punishments is called ______power.

a) legitimate

b) reward

c) coercive

d) referent

e) expert

11. Power obtained because people want to be like you is called ______power.

a) legitimate

b) reward

c) coercive

d) referent

e) expert

12. Power obtained by being a source of knowledge or skills is called ______power.

a) legitimate

b) reward

c) coercive

d) referent

e) expert

13. A(n) ______leadership style refers to demanding blind submission to someone in authority.

a) authoritarian

b) horizontal

c) referent

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

14. Proponents of “Theory X” of management subscribe to the belief that employees are inherently:

a) lazy

b) creative

c) self-directed

d) respected

e) none of the above

15. Proponents of “Theory Y” of management subscribe to the belief that employees are inherently:

a) lazy

b) bored

c) self-directed

d) tired

e) none of the above

16. Research indicates which of the following types of management systems is associated with higher levels of employee productivity, loyalty, and motivation, all of which contributed to higher profits?

a) Theory X

b) participative

c) authoritarian

d) hierarchical

e) none of the above

17. The leadership style known as delegating is typically most useful when an employee possesses which of the following characteristics?

a) high competence and high commitment

b) moderate to high competence and variable commitment

c) low or some competence and low commitment

d) low competence and high commitment

e) none of the above

18. According to research on ethical leadership, which of the following characteristics is/are associated with a manager’s reputation for being an ethical leader?

a) being a moral person and moral manager

b) being a good person and a kind person

c) being an authoritarian but fair manager

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

19. The term ______refers to “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement, and decision-making.”

a) moral person

b) moral manager

c) ethical leadership

d) horizontal leadership

e) none of the above

20. Ethical leadership has been shown to be associated with which of the following?

a) employee disengagement

b) employee commitment

c) employee misconduct

d) employee expenses

e) none of the above

21. Which of the following personality traits has/have been shown to be strongly associated with ethical leadership?

a) patience and kindness

b) agreeableness and conscientiousness

c) morals and norms

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

22. A useful measure for assessing virtue ethics in ethical leaders focuses on the ______emphasized by Aristotle.

a) ten commandments

b) Golden Rule

c) cardinal virtues

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

23. The approach focusing on achieving organizational results by humbly caring for and serving the needs of superiors, colleagues and subordinates is known as ______leadership.

a) situational

b) servant

c) ethical

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

24.Which of the following characteristics is not associated with those representing a servant leader?

a) altruistic calling

b) emotional healing

c) wisdom

d) organizational stewardship

e) none of the above

25. The five dimensions associated with being a “Great Place to Work” as defined by the research institute responsible for Fortune magazine’s annual listing include: credibility, respect, fairness, pride, and ______.

a) hierarchy

b) reporting

c) camaraderie

d) fun

e) none of the above

26. Organizations that meet the “Great Place to Work” standards witness which of the following benefits?

a) more qualified job applicants

b) lower level of turnover and health care costs

c) higher levels of customer satisfaction

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

27. Two important levers for ensuring high-quality and ethical performance are:

a) work goals and employee performance appraisals

b) salary caps and incentive compensation

c) incentive compensation and bonuses

d) Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics

e) none of the above

28. A tool known as the ______can provide ethical leaders with more holistic goals and measurements for evaluating organizational performance.

a) employee performance appraisal

b) balanced scorecard

c) 360 degree evaluation

d) “Great Place to Work” certification

e) none of the above

29. The ______approach advocates a holistic goal approach that takes into account an organizational’s environmental, social and financial performance.

a) 360 degree evaluation

b) performance appraisal

c) triple bottom line

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

30. A(n) ______goal can be vulnerable to encouraging employee temptation toward dishonesty and to behave unethically if that is the only way they can achieve the goal by the specified deadline.

a) incremental

b) stretch

c) foundation

d) reach

e) none of the above

31. SMART goals are specific, measurable, aligned, reachable and ______.

a) troublesome

b) tight

c) time-bound

d) tiring

e) tried

32. ______is a goal-setting technique in which managers and their subordinates jointly determine work unit and individual goals in alignment with organizational goals.

a) SMART goals

b) Management-by-objectives

c) Motivation

d) Stretch goals

e) none of the above

33. Managing employee and organizational ______is associated with better health, increased productivity and ethical employee behaviors, among other benefits.

a) stress

b) compensation

c) goals

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

34. A useful tool for reducing workplace stress is ______.

a) meditation

b) wellness programs

c) delegation training

d) all of the above

e) none of the above

35. An employee ______evaluates factors that are directly or indirectly related to achieving organizational and employee goals.

a) stretch goal

b) wellness program

c) compensation structure

d) performance appraisal

e) none of the above

36. Tools that can assist with enhancing ethical behavior in the workplace can include all but which of the following?

a) performance appraisals

b) surveying actual behaviors

c) surveying performance according to the organization’s codes

d) exploring ideal employee attitudes and behaviors

e) none of the above

37. A more holistic and authentic picture of an employee’s performance can be determined based on a(n) ______, which includes evaluating information from multiple perspectives.

a) ethical performance evaluation

b) 360 degree performance evaluation

c) SMART performance evaluation

d) ideal employee performance evaluation

e) none of the above

38. Violations are harm-generating behaviors that require forgiveness, which can be applied through a four-phase model for managers including 1) uncovering phase, 2) decision phase, 3) ______, 4) outcome phase.

a) termination phase

b) violation phase

c) forgiveness phase

d) work phase

e) none of the above

39. Subordinates are more likely to be influenced by written and oral directions provided directly from their supervisor, rather than by witnessing a manager’s decisions and behaviors.

40. According to Torbert’s management typologies, professionals such as senior executives tend to be achievers and strategists.

41. There does not seem to be a measurable correlation between personal integrity and successful leadership in management.

42. It is possible for managers to operate from all five of the types of power bases when leading an organization.

43. “Theory X” and “Theory Y” of management ultimately lead to similar approaches to managing people.

44. Situational leadership styles can be categorized in one of four ways, according to an employee’s level of competence and commitment or confidence.

45. From an ethics perspective, situational leadership sensitizes managers to focus on employee needs and providing the style of leadership those needs dictate.

46. A manager’s private life is irrelevant to the way employees and other key stakeholders perceive the manager’s ethics, as long as no significant problems reach the news media.

47. Because perceptions of a manager’s ethical leadership are subjective, assessment tools that can be used to evaluate a specific manager are unfair.

48. Some supervisors may resist top management efforts to inculcate ethical behaviors due to fear that ethical behavior is a hindrance to short-term goal achievement.

49. The extension of respect to employees through “common decencies” including calling employees by name and remembering their names, while polite, is irrelevant to specific measures of job performance and productivity.

50. Being ethical, without being perceived by others as being ethical, is problematic; as such, creating employee feedback systems is essential.

51. Ill-conceived organizational goals, such as unreasonable profit expectations, can generate unethical behaviors.

52. An incremental goal is one that appears to be just a little out of the employee’s reach, and challenges employees to perform at peak efficiency and effectiveness.

53. Employees are more likely to pay attention to organizational and individual issues if they are included in a performance appraisal.

54. Including an ethics component in an employee performance appraisal can be distracting from individual and organizational goals and should be discussed elsewhere.

55. Poorly managed performance appraisals can be detrimental to employee development, morale, and productivity.

56. Ranking systems for employee performance appraisal are useful for creating healthy competition among employees.

57. Employees are much more receptive to negative feedback than to positive feedback, which people tend to disregard or block out.

58. Ethical leadership means never disciplining or firing anyone.

59. Ethics suggests that poor performers can be given an opportunity to improve within a certain timeline prior to dismissal, or that care and concern be extended when downsizing occurs by providing outplacement services.

60. It is important to constructively address minor workplace infractions because they often escalate into bigger problems.

61. Outline the continuum of potential punishments for managing minor workplace infractions.

62. Identify and explain three different leadership styles, including their major features.

63. Identify and define the five sources of power available to managers.

64. Identify and define Torbert’s six management role models, which are associated with the different stages of moral development.