Bentley Chapter 15 Reading Guide

Use the map at the following link for this chapter:

(1)  Who united China during the late sixth century? How long did the Sui dynasty last? Describe his rule.

(2)  What elaborate project was undertaken during the Sui Dynasty? What made it unique? What was the impact of this project? In other words, what process did it help facilitate?

(3)  On your map, use diagonals to show the area occupied by the Sui Dynasty. Also, using blue pencil, create the Grand Canal on your map. Also, label all of the cities which were linked by the Grand Canal. Also label the Yellow River, Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea on your map. Create a key for your colors and symbols.

(4)  When did the Tang Dynasty rule? Who was responsible for the success of the Tang? Discuss some specific achievements of his reign.

(5)  What three policies of Tang Taizong explain the early success of his reign?

(6)  What did the equal field system do?

(7)  Describe Tang’s Bureaucracy of Merit.

(8)  What is a tributary system? Discuss the tributary relationship between China and neighboring lands.

(9)  What brought about Tang decline during the mid eighth century? What final events resulted in the last Tang emperor abdicating his throne in 907?

(10)  Using green, shade the areas occupied by the Tang dynasty on your map. Put on your key. Label the Taklamakan Desert and Tibet on your map.

(11)  Who ruled China between the Tang and Song dynasties? What years did the Song rule? Why didn’t the Song Dynasty build a very powerful state? What did they do instead?

(12)  Describe the rule of Song Taizu. In other words, give specific examples of his policies.

(13)  Name two policies of the Song that weakened the dynasty. What was the effect or outcome of the policies?

(14)  Look at the map on page 391. How did the Song Dynasty compare to the Tang Dynasty in size? Use a dark purple line to outline the region occupied by the Song on your map. Put on your key.

(15)  What discovery did the Sui and Tang armies make in Vietnam which increased agricultural productivity? What was unique about this discovery?

(16)  What new agricultural techniques emerged during the Tang and Song dynasties that also increased production? How did this impact population growth? Be specific in your answer, citing statistics.

(17)  What was the world’s most populous city during the Tang dynasty? What was the capital of the later Song dynasty in the late 13th century? Describe it using specific details and examples.

(18)  Another result of increased food production was the emergence of a commercialized agricultural economy. Explain.

(19)  What happened to patriarchal social structures during the Tang and Song dynasties? What practice increased in popularity as a result? What specific group participated in this practice? Which group did not? Why?

(20)  What practice in the Islamic world resembles foot binding? Explain.

(21)  Read about the technological and industrial developments of the Tang and Song Dynasties on pages 394-396. Describe each technological development in a sentence and discuss its impact. Also, discuss what other areas of the world were impacted by each development.

(22)  “….millions of cultivators produced fruits and vegetables for sale on the open market, and manufacturers of ______, ______, and other goods supplied both domestic and foreign markets. The Chinese economy became more tightly ______than ever before, and ______demand for Chinese products fueled rapid economic expansion.”

(23)  What did the Chinese do during the Tang and Song eras when copper coins were scarce? What was “flying cash”?

(24)  What did the Chinese invent in the late ninth century as a result of the search for alternatives to cash? Over time, what problems developed as a result of this invention?

(25)  China grew into a Cosmopolitan society with people from all over the world. Identify three groups from other regions who came to China by land and sea. Explain how each group came to be there.

(26)  “Chinese consumers developed a taste for exotic goods that stimulated trade throughout much of the eastern hemisphere. ______from the islands of southeast Asia made their way to China, along with products as diverse as ______and ______from Vietnam, pearls and incense from ______, and horses and melons from ______.” In exchange what did the Chinese send abroad?

(27)  When did Buddhism arrive in China? Who brought Buddhism to China?

(28)  What were the other cultural alternatives to Buddhism?

(29)  Why did Confucianism lose popularity?

(30)  What other foreign religions established communities in China after the fall of the Han dynasty? What ruler encouraged these communities?

(31)  Mahayana Buddhism found a popular following in Tang and Song China. What is Mahayana Buddhism? Use your glossary, if needed.

(32)  “Residents of ______in central Asia had converted to Buddhism as early as the first or second century B.C.E. and the oases had became sites of ______missionary efforts. By the fourth century C.E., a sizeable Buddhist community had emerged at ______in western China. Between about 600 and 1000 CE, Buddhists built hundreds of ______in the vicinity of Dunhuang and decorated them with murals depicting events in the lives of the ______and the boddhisatvas who played prominent roles in Mahayana Buddhism. They also assembled libraries of ______and operated scriptoria to produce Buddhist ______.Missions supported by establishments such as thos at Dunhuang helped Buddhism to establish a ______in China.”

(33)  Who were the boddhisatvas?

(34)  Why did Buddhism attract such a large following?

(35)  In what ways did Buddhism pose a challenge to Chinese cultural and social raditions? Give several reasons.

(36)  How did Buddhist missionaries tailor their message to Chinese audiences?

(37)  Chan Buddhism was a syncretic faith. What does this mean?

(38)  Who resented Buddhism? Why?

(39)  Who joined the Daoist and Confucian critics as allies during the 840’s? What was the result? Ultimately, were their efforts successful?

(40)  How did neo-Confucianism develop? Be specific in describing the process.

(41)  Who was Zhu Xi? What were some of his beliefs?

(42)  What were the basic principles of Neo-Confucianism.

(43)  Give two reasons why Neo-Confucianism was an important cultural development.

(44)  When did Chinese armies first venture into Korea and Vietnam?

(45)  What specific group prevented Chinese domination of the peninsula when attacked by Tang armies in the seventh century?

(46)  Korea entered into a tributary relationship with China. Explain.

(47)  In what way did the tributary relationship facilitate the spread of Chinese political and cultural influences in Korea?

(48)  How did China and Korea differ?

(49)  What cultural practices did Viet Nam adopt as a result of Tang armies venturing into the region? Be specific. How did the Viets feel about Chinese efforts to dominate their land? Discuss differences between Vietnam and China. What religion came from China?

(50)  Who were the first people to occupy Japan? Where did they come from? What was the political structure of early agricultural society in Japan?

(51)  How did the Sui and Tang dynasties influence Japan’s political structure?

(52)  In what was did the imperial house of Japan establish a court modeled on that of the Tang? Discuss specific aspects of their policy.

(53)  “…in the year 710 (the imperial house) moved to a new capital city at ______, (near modern Kyoto) that was a replica of the tang capital at ______. Never was ______influence more prominent in Japan than during the Nara period (710-794 CE).

(54)  On your map, label Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

(55)  “…Japan did not lose its distinctive characteristics or become simply a smaller model of ______society. While adopting Confucian and Buddhist traditions from China, for example, the Japanese continued to observe the rites of ______, their indigenous religion, which revolved around the ______and a host of ______and ______.”

(56)  What does “indigenous” mean?

(57)  “In 794 the emperor of Japan transferred his court from ______to a newly constructed capital at nearby ______. During the next four centuries, ______became the seat of a refined and sophisticated society that drew inspiration from China but also elaborated distinctively Japanese political and cultural traditions.”

(58)  “During the Heian period (794-1185 CE) local rulers on the island of Honshu mostly recognized the ______as Japan’s supreme political authority. Unlike their Chinese counterparts, however, Japanese emperors rarely ruled, but served as ceremonial ______and symbols of ______. Effective power lay in the hands of the ______family, an aristocratic clan that controlled affairs from behind the ______through its influence over the imperial house and manipulation of its members.” How does this explain the longevity of the Japanese imperial house.

(59)  How did cultural developments of Heian Japan reflect the influence of Chinese culture?

(60)  Explain how aristocratic women made notable contributions to literature during Heian times.

(61)  What was The Tale of the Genji? What was its impact?

(62)  What factors brought about the decline of Heian Japan? Give at least two specific reasons.

(63)  When did the Medieval period occur in Japan? Describe the political organization in the Kamakura (1185-1333 CE) and Muromachi (1336-1573 CE) periods. What did the lords and clans value above etiquette and courtesy?

(64)  What was the samurai? What was his role during the medieval period?

(65)  Describe the relationship between the samurai and the provincial lords.

(66)  What skills did the samurai possess?

(67)  What was bushido?

(68)  What did samurai do when they failed their masters? What is this practice called?