Guided Notes Declaration of Independence


1. Vocabulary/concepts





2. Theory of revolution

When demands/coercion of rulers exceeds norms of fairness, in relation to
rewards for obedience, it sets in motion processes of opposition, leading to more
demands and coercion for obedience. Given sufficient support, the means of
resistance (organization, technology), and alternative political arrangements,
armed rebellion will begin.

3. Events leading to the Revolution. Note that they map onto the theory.

4. Deductive argument. First premise (rule). Second premise (facts subsumed under
rule. Conclusion (implication of first two premises).

5. Restating complex sentences as facts, lists, definitions, or rules (propositions)

New Material

1. The function of the Declaration. What IS a declaration?

2. Rhetorical devices.

Appeal to aegis.

Appeal to the people

4. New vocabulary in the document. inalienable right, tyranny,…

5. First paragraph. Reason.

6. Second paragraph. Theory of republican form of government. Summarize as a
logical sequence of propositions. This is the first premise of deductive argument.

7. The list of abuses. Second premise/facts relevant to first premise.

8. Concluding paragraph.

Guided Notes on Revolutionary America

Democracy: definition

Origins in Ancient Greece. Athens, in the territory of Attica. 500 BC

Development of polis, or city-state.

Types of Democracy: features, benefits, problems.



Direct Representative

The idea of representative government passed on to 18th century philosophers---Locke

Guided Notes for Civics Course. E. September 21

1.Definition of Federalists and Anti-federalists.

2. Important Federalists and Anti-federalists.

3.Primary differences between Federalists and Anti-federalists as revealed in speeches and writings.

4.Implications of Federalism and Anti-federalism for a Constitution. What each group wanted and did not want.

5.The compromise between Federalists and Anti-federalists regarding the Constitution.


a.Process of ratification.

b.Date ratified.

c.States that ratified it after the fact.

7.How the Constitution is Amended?

8.The necessary and proper clause which is also known as the elastic clause.


Guided Notes on

Slavery and Westward Expansion

When the nation gained new territory, the slavery controversy intensified. Would new states be slave or free? Who would decide? States that allowed slavery were determined to prevent free states from gaining a majority in the Senate. Political compromise broke down by 1860, and when Lincoln was elected president, many Southern states decided to secede.


Many Southern states believed that Article 4, Section 2 of the Constitution

(any citizen charged with a crime from another state and fleeing to another state can be delivered to the State having Jurisdiction)

Many Northerners had strong beliefs to the contrary and sheltered runaways and helped them escape.


A Southern Democrat-though dry climate in Southwest would not support slavery.

A strong debate broke out in the Senate and Polk realized the slavery issue was not going to end.

i. Wilmot Proviso (Rep. David Wilmot, PA)=proposed that any territory the United States gained from Mexico, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist.

ii. Outraged Southerners. Despite Southern opposition, Northern Democrats and Whigs passed Wilmot Proviso in the House of Rep., but Senate refused to vote on it.

John C. Calhoun proposed (Calhoun Resolution)=stated that the states owned the territories in of U.S. in common and Congress has no right to ban slavery.


Passion stirred on both sides over Wilmot Proviso

Popular Sovereignty=each new territory should be allowed to decide for themselves if they wanted to permit slavery or not.

POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY appealed to Congress because it removed slavery issue from national politics. Northerners and Midwesterners supported because they though most Northerners would settle area.

FREE SOIL PARTY EMERGES=the merging of the Conscience Whigs, Democrats and Abolitionist Liberty Party. Opposed slavery in “free soil” of western territories.

“Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men”

ELECTION of 1848

Three parties support candidates. Whigs-Free Soil Party-Democrats

Zachery Taylor-Whig (Mexico War hero) Lewis Cass-Democrats Martin Van Buren-Free Soil Party

Zachery Taylor wins election


Once gold was discovered, California quickly apply for statehood. Would Calif. Enter as a slave or free state.

FORTY-NINERS=discovery of gold brought thousands to California, nearly 80,000 by the end of 1849. Gold rush forces the nation to confront the issue of slavery.


If California entered the Union as a free state, slave holding states would become a minority. Southerners feared they would lose power and lead to limits on slavery and state right’s.

A few southern states talked of secession = taking states out of the Union

Henry Clay tries to find a compromise again. He group resolution in pairs

  1. Allow California to come in as a free state, but organized the rest of the Mexican cession without any restrictions on slavery.
  2. Settle the border between New Mexico and Texas by having Federal government take on its debts.
  3. outlawed slave trade in District of Columbia but did not outlaw slavery itself.
  4. Congress would be prohibited from interfering with the domestic slave trade and would pass new slave acts to help the South recover slaves from Northern states.

-concession were necessary to assure the South that the North would not use its control of majority in the Senate to abolish slavery.

Calhoun opposes Clay’s proposal, Calhoun is a slave owner and defender of Southern rights. Union needs to accept Southern rights or the only option is to secede from the Union

Webster rises to put sectional disputes aside and come together as a Union.


President Taylor did not support Clay’s bill (he was a southerner) and Congress in turn did not pass the bill. But Taylor dies in office and Fillmore succeeded him. Fillmore supported the bill. Calhoun dies after Taylor.

Bill was sectioned off into different smaller bills so some states could vote for or against parts they did or did not like. Congress passes the bill. Now a law.

COMPROMISE OF 1850, eased tensions but for only a few years.

Guided Notes on “The Chimney Sweeper”

When my mother died I was very young,

And my father sold me while yet my tongue

Could scarcely cry "Weep! weep! weep! weep!"

So your chimneys I sweep, and in soot I sleep.

There's little Tom Dacre, who cried when his head,

That curled like a lamb's back, was shaved; so I said,

"Hush, Tom! never mind it, for, when your head's bare,

You know that the soot cannot spoil your white hair."

And so he was quiet, and that very night,

As Tom was a-sleeping, he had such a sight! --

That thousands of sweepers, Dick, Joe, Ned, and Jack,

Were all of them locked up in coffins of black.

And by came an angel, who had a bright key,

And he opened the coffins, and let them all free;

Then down a green plain, leaping, laughing, they run,

And wash in a river, and shine in the sun.

Then naked and white, all their bags left behind,

They rise upon clouds, and sport in the wind;

And the Angel told Tom, if he'd be a good boy,

He'd have God for his father, and never want joy.

And so Tom awoke, and we rose in the dark,

And got with our bags and our brushes to work.

Though the morning was cold, Tom was happy and warm:

So, if all do their duty, they need not fear harm.

William Blake. Facts about…

Guided Notes on Blake’s The Chimney Sweeper

[See Glossary for English Lit Course ]

Blake as a Romantic poet.

Review definition of Romanticism.

Verse provides a direct way of conveying personal emotion.

“A high use of emotion is prevalent throughout. The first two stanzas are especially emotive showing the reader the plight of a very young child sold into chimney sweeping. The use of strong images like the mother dying and the child crying help the reader feel and empathize with the character more.”

Compare with other Romantics (Wordsworth, Keats) regarding subject matter and style.

*** Review literary devices:





Narrator. Irony. Blake’s narrator who is aware of the deception and false hope that is being fed to Little Tom Dacre by the angel of the poem.

Examine examples of Blake, Wordsworth, Keats.

Analyze “The Chimney Sweeper.”

The times. Lives of rich and poor.

Big idea: Progress does not benefit everyone. There is a price for technological change.

Background. Parents sometimes sold their children. Discuss the morality of this? Pro: child had a marginally better life? Con: It was strictly based on economic interest. Child as commodity.

Identify rhyme scheme

Identify meter

Identify literary devices:




Discuss theme. Exposing the capacity of the Christianity (or merely certain churches and clergy?) to collude in the enslavement of children by providing a palatable fiction: "if all do their duty, they need not fear harm.”

Guided Notes Organized With the Cornell Note-Taking Method

Cues. Student writes questions to self. “What is the definition of militia?” “Compare and contrast position of federalists (nationalists) vs. anti-federalists (confederationists).”

Note-taking area. Teacher writes in topic/task and summary. Students take notes on the chunk/section.

Summary. Student summarizes the section.

Review rights.
Review four functions of Bill of Rights / Note-taking
Task 1. Overview of Bill of Rights
New vocabulary. Establishment of religion, assemble, well regulated, Militia, capital, indictment, Grand Jury, twice put in jeopardy, due process of law, trial by jury, excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments, deny or disparage, delegated
a. Facts about Bill of Rights.
b. Skim each amendment, or article. Vocabulary. Rights
Task 2. Big ideas about government
Task 3. Nondemocratic states---nonexample of democracy. What happens when you don’t have freedom.
Task 4. Ideas of Founders---quotations.
Task 5. Writing Constitution and Bill of rights--process
Task 6. Close examination of Bill of Rights
Task 7.
Task 8.