Jk Gopakumar

Karan Warrier

Fill in Review Test: Wars 1450-1648


Period 4

English Society suffered severely from the wars of the 15th century. One of these disorders was the (1) ______, between the adherents of the ducal houses of York and Lancaster. It lasted from 1455-1471. Later on, peasant revolts against nobles in Germany, known as the (2) ______, resulted in more than seventy five thousand peasants dead. This event greatly strengthened the authority of lay rulers. During the (3) ______, a religious storm caused the rejection of Catholicism and the highlighting of papal financial exploitation. This event starts with a “P”. (4)______, the emperor of the HRE at the time and a vigorous defender of Catholicism, thought this was unacceptable. The Protestants and Catholics went to war. The first battleground was (5)______(starts with an “S”), which was officially part of the Holy Roman Empire. However, (6)______, (the leader of the Reformation in Switzerland) was killed and the two sides stopped fighting. They came to an agreement that a (starts with a “t”) (7)______was preferable to further fighting. This (7)______basically allowed each canton to determine its own religion and ordered each side to give up its foreign alliances. In another famous series of wars starting in 1521 (the (8)______),(9) (starts with “F”)______of France and the (10) (starts with “R”)______of Venice were pitted against the Holy Roman Emperor (11)______, (12)______of England, and the (13)______states. The conflict arose from animosity over the election of the Holy Roman Emperor in 1519–20 and from Pope Leo X's need to ally with Charles against Martin Luther. On August 24, 1572, (14) ______Massacre occurred. This led to a civil war that dragged on for 15 years. Because of this marriage between (15)______and Margaret of Valois, Huguenot guest were massacred. (15)______knew that the majority of the French were Roman Catholics. So, in the (16)______, which Henry of Navarre published in 1598, he granted liberty of conscience and liberty of publish of public worship to Huguenots in 150 fortified towns, such as La Rochelle. Earlier, for ten years, between 1568 and 1578, civil war raged in the Netherlands between (17) (starts with a “C”) ______and (18) (starts with a “P”)______and between the seventeen provinces and Spain. Eventually, the ten southern provinces, the (19)______, came under the control of the Spanish Habsburg forces. The seven northern provinces, led by (20)______, formed the (21)______and in 1581 declared independence from Spain. The north was (22)______and the south was (23)______. The war continued with Dutch troops gaining victories under the leadership of a local nobleman, (24)______, prince of Orange. He was assassinated, so the leaders of the United Provinces looked to England for help. Fearing Spain would invade England, (25)______, the monarch of England, sent money and troops to the Netherlands. Fighting continued on and off in the Netherlands, but the borders set by the Union of Utrecht gradually became permanent. Earlier that century, the Age of Exploration had begun. In 1519, the year Magellan departed on his worldwide expedition, a Spanish explorer named (26)______crossed from Hispaniola to mainland Mexico with a small number of men, horses, and cannons. The Spaniards arrived in the capital of the Aztec Empire, (27)______, and quickly took over the city. He executed the emperor, but he and his forces were driven out of the city. When news came back the Aztecs had contracted major diseases, (26)______returned and took over the entire empire with the help of local tribes. In another part of South America, the explorer Francisco Pizarro landed in present-day Peru. He came across the peoples known as the (28)______. Like Cortes, he waged war against the native people of the land and started a conflict that lasted for decades. However, Pizarro eventually came out on top. About a century later, a massive war called the (29)______began in 1618. It consisted of four phases: the Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, and French phases. In the Bohemian Phase, there was conflict between the Protestant (30)______and the Catholic (31)______. Frederick, the elector of the Palatinate, led the Protestants. Ferdinand of Styria led the Catholics. The Bohemians fought for religious liberty and independence from Habsburg rule. However, within ten years, Bohemia was completely Catholic.In the Danish phase, the Catholic imperial army led by (32)______of Wallenstein swept through Silesia, north to the Baltic, and east into Pomerania, scoring smashing victories. However, Wallenstein fought to make his own empire rather than aiding the Catholic cause. He quarreled with the Catholic League, and the Catholics forces were divided. In the Swedish phase of the war, the Swedish king (33)______won many battles for the Protestants. However, he was eventually wounded and died. In the final phase of the war, Catholic (34) (begins with an “F”) ______decided to side with the Protestants. Their main goal was to take the Habsburgs down, and they wanted to achieve it through any means possible.Eventually, the war ended because neither side had the resources to win a quick, decisive victory. The (35)______officially ended the war and ended the conflicts over religious faith.


  1. War of the Roses
  2. German-Peasants War
  3. Protestant Reformation
  4. Charles V
  5. Switzerland
  6. Huldrych Zwingli
  7. treaty
  8. Habsburg Valois Wars
  9. Francis I
  10. Republic of Venice
  11. Charles V
  12. Henry VIII
  13. Papal States
  14. Saint Bartholomew’s Day massacre
  15. Henry of Navarre/Henry IV
  16. Edict of Nantes
  17. Catholics
  18. Protestants
  19. Spanish Netherlands
  20. Holland
  21. Union of Utrecht
  22. Protestant
  23. Catholic
  24. William of Nassau
  25. Queen Elizabeth
  26. Hernando Cortes
  27. Tenochtitlan
  28. Incas
  29. Thirty Years War
  30. Union
  31. League
  32. Albert
  33. Gustavus Adolphus
  34. France
  35. Peace of Westphalia