Chapter 4 and 5 Study Guide
Date: ______Magic #: ______
Chapter 4 and 5 Study Guide:
- In all of Mendel’s crosses, only one form of the trait appeared in the F _ Generation.
- However, in the F_ generation, the “lost” form of the trait always appeared in about _____/4th of the plants.
- Mendel studied what plant? ______
- What 7 traits did he study about this plant?
5. An organism’s traits are controlled by the alleles it inherits from its ______.
6. Some alleles are dominant. This means it ______the other allele.
7. Some alleles are ______. This means it is masked by the other allele.
8. What does purebred mean?
9. What is fertilization?
10. What is the study of genetics?
11. An organism’s phenotype is its physical appearance, or visible ______.
12. An organism’s ______is its genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
13. BB would be an example of a ______.
14. Bb would be an example of a ______.
15. bb would be an example of a ______.
16. BY would be an example of a ______.
17. In codominance, the alleles are neither dominant nor ______.
18. What is the name of the chart used to predict all of the possible genetic crosses?
19. What is another word for purebred?
20. What is another word for hybrid?
21. According to the chromosome theory of inheritance, genes are carried from parents to their offspring on ______.
22. During meiosis, the chromosome ______separate and are distributed to two different cells.
23. After meiosis, the resulting sex cells, sometimes called gametes, have only _____ as many chromosomes as the other cells in the organism.
24. What kind of cells are made during meiosis?
25. Gametes = sex cells
26. What are the 4 bases of DNA?
27. What are the 4 bases of RNA?
28. How many backbones does DNA have?
29. How many backbones does RNA have?
30. Why are Watson and Crick famous?
31. What are the 3 kinds of mutations?
32. What is a mutation?
33. Mendel is called the “Father of ______.”
34. Mutations in ______cells are passed to offspring.
35. If the body cells of an organism have 10 chromosomes, then the sex cells produced during meiosis would have _____ chromosomes.
36. Create a Punnett Square crossing RR and Rr.
37. According to #36’s Punnett Square, what are the resulting genotypes?
38. According to #36’s Punnett Square, what is the probability of having a purebred offspring?
39. What is the other half of: TATGCTG
40. What would be the RNA strand that matches with TATGCTG?
41. Some human traits are controlled by a single gene with two alleles. One is dominant, and the other is ______.
42. Sex chromosomes carry genes that determine whether a person is male or female. What are the chromosomes if you are a girl? ______If you are a boy: ______
43. What is meant by multiple alleles?
44. What is a sex-linked gene?
45. Give 2 examples of sex-linked genes:
46. What is a carrier?
47. Can a male be a carrier of a sex-linked gene?
48. Can a male be a carrier of a regular (not sex-linked) gene?
49. What is a pedigree?
50. What does a circle represent in a pedigree?
51. What does a square represent in a pedigree?
52. What does a half filled circle represent in a pedigree?
53. What does a fully filled square represent in a pedigree?
54. How can a pedigree be useful?
55. What kind of councilor would use a pedigree?
56. What is a karyotype?
57. How can a karyotype be useful?
58. Which genetic disorder can easily be seen in a Karyotype?
59. What is cloning?
60. What was the first creature ever successfully cloned (from video)?
61. What are they trying to clone now?
62. What creature would you like to see brought back from extinction? Why?
63. What was the name of the first sheep that was ever cloned?
64. Describe sickle cell anemia.
65. Describe hemophilia.
66. What is hemoglobin?
67. If hemophilia has to do with bleeding to death, and hemoglobin has to do with blood proteins, what do you think “hemo” means? ______
68. Describe Down syndrome.
69. Describe cystic fibrosis.
70. If Sickle-cell anemia is a codominant disorder, what would your blood look like if you were a hybrid?
71. List all the genetic disorders discussed in class that are sex-linked.
72. XX = ______
73. XY = ______
74. Look at page 168 in your book. Answer question #21. Explain HOW you know your answers.
75. Look at page 169 in your book. Answer questions #3 and #4.