Chapter 31—From the “Age of Limits” to the Age of Reagan
BIG PICTURE QUESTIONS FOR SECTION I: Why were Ford and Carter’s presidencies sometimes called “the malaise days”?
I. Politics and Diplomacy after Watergate (pp. 866-868)
- The Ford Custodianship
- Nixon Pardoned—How did Ford’s image as an honest man take a hit? What economic problems did Ford face during his presidency?
- Ford’s Diplomatic Successes—Who ran during the presidential election of 1976? Who won?
- The Trials of Jimmy Carter
- Carter’s Lack of Direction—What appeal did Carter use when he ran for president? What did critics say about him?
- High Interest Rates—How high did interest rates reach by 1980? What speech did President Carter give, and why did it make him unpopular?
- Human Right and National Interests—What happened with Panama?
- Camp David Accords—What countries were involved in the Camp David Accords, and what agreement was reached? What was SALT II?
- The Year of the Hostages
- Iranian Revolution—What was America’s involvement in Iran, and why was America involved there? Why were Americans taken hostage in Iran? What happened in Afghanistan?
- Carter’s Falling Popularity—Why did Carter’s popularity fall?
BIG PICTURE QUESTIONS FOR SECTION II: Who comprised the New Right, and what did the movement stand for?
II. The Rise of the New American Right (pp. 869-874)
- The Sunbelt and it Politics
- Rise of the “Sunbelt”—What areas were included in the Sunbelt? Why did this region’s influence grow? What attitudes did people in this region share?
- Sagebrush Rebellion
- Suburban Conservatism—Why were suburbs so conservative?
- The Politics of Religion
- Evangelical Christianity—What common belief did evangelical Christians share? What political messages did evangelical Christians believe?
- The Moral Majority and the Christian Coalition—What was the Moral Majority, and who started it? What was the Christian Coalition, and who started it?
- The New Right—Who else (in addition to Christians) became part of the New Right?
- Ronald Reagan—What was Ronald Reagan’s background, and how did he become politically prominent?
- Tax Revolt
- Proposition 13—What was a new issue used by the New Right? In what state did Proposition 13 occur, and what did it do?
- Attacking Taxes—What made “attacking taxes” a winning issue for the New Right?
- The Campaign of 1980
- 1980 Election—Who ran in 1980, and who won? What happened to the Iranian hostages?
BIG PICTURE QUESTIONS FOR SECTION III: How did Reagan reshape economics and politics in America in the 1980s?
III. The “Reagan Revolution” (pp. 874-878)
- The Reagan Coalition
- Corporate Elites—What policies did corporate sponsors of Reagan support?
- “Neo-Conservatives”—What policies did “neo-conservatives” believe in?
- Populist Conservatives—Why was Reagan’s political skill and personal charm so impressive?
- Reagan in the White House—What was Reagan’s image? How “hands-on” of a president was he?
- “Supply-Side” Economics
- “Reaganomics”—How are “supply-side” economics (or Reaganomics) supposed to help encourage economic growth? In this theory, what was supposed to happen to taxes and government spending? Was Reagan successful (early on) in following this plan?
- “Deregulation”—In what parts of the government did Reagan reduce the amount of government regulation? What was government supposed to do in Reagan’s plan?
- Sources of Recovery—What led to the economic recovery of 1983 (after the recession of 1982)?
- The Fiscal Crisis
- Soaring National Debt—How much debt did the Reagan administration grow?
- Welfare Benefits Cut—What factors contributed to the growing national debt? How did the Reagan administration answer the debt problem?
- Reagan and the World—How did Reagan change America’s approach to communism?
- SDI—What was SDI, and why did the Soviets not like it?
- Reagan Doctrine—What was the Reagan Doctrine? What happened in Grenada? What happened in Nicaragua?
- Terrorism—How did events in Lebanon demonstrate a different use of tactics in Third World conflicts?
- The Election of 1984—Who ran in the presidential election of 1984? What themes did Reagan use? Who won?
BIG PICTURE QUESTIONS FOR SECTION IV: How did the Cold War end? What forces helped bring Bill Clinton to the presidency?
IV. America and the Waning of the Cold War (pp. 878-882) —What factors contributed to the fall of the Soviet Union?
- The Fall of the Soviet Union
- Mikhail Gorbechev—What were Gorbechev’s proposed reforms of glasnost and perestroika? When and where did the Soviet Union’s influence decrease first?
- Tiananmen Square—Where is Tiananmen Square and what happened there?
- Dissolution of the USSR—What happened in 1991 to dissolve the Soviet Union?
- Reagan and Gorbechev
- The Fading of the Reagan Revolution
- Savings and Loan Crisis—What happened to the Savings and Loan industry, and why?
- Iran-Contra Scandal—What had the Reagan administration been doing with Iran and the contras in Nicaragua?
- The Election of 1988—Who ran in the election of 1988?
- Bush’s Negative Campaign—Who won the election?
- The First Bush Presidency
- Political Gridlock—What contradictory promises did George H.W. Bush make?
- 1990 Recession—What was the most serious domestic problem facing Bush?
- The First Gulf War
- Invasion of Kuwait—Who invaded Kuwait in 1990? What was the outcome of the first gulf war? How did some Muslims react to the presence of American troops in the region?
- The Election of 1992—What happened to George H.W. Bush’s popularity after the war, and why?
- Bill Clinton—What gave Bill Clinton the opportunity to run for president?
- Ross Perot—Who was Ross Perot and why was he popular? Who won the presidential election of 1992?