Basic Computer Aided Drafting in Civil Engineering

Basic Computer Aided Drafting in Civil Engineering






1.What is Auto cadd?

AutoCAD is a computer-aided drafting software program used to create blueprints for buildings, bridges, and computer chips, among other things. Discover how AutoCAD is used by drafters and other professionals.

2.What are the uses of AutoCAD?

AutoCAD software is used to draw and design the documents and the applications with easy customization options.
AutoCAD provides a platform to be used by professionals to create the designs and 3D models.
It allows the creation of the professional technical drawings and conceptual designs used for representation of the logics.
It allows the drafter to provide the finishing touches and designing with the detailing and linking to the online data.
It provides suppliers or operational professionals to review the drawings and modify it according to the requirements.

3.Where Auto cadd is used?

It is used by drafters & other professionals used in architecture construction & manufacturing to assit in the preparation of blur prints

4.What is the main purpose of AutoCAD?

AutoCAD is used to create the computer aided designs or software applications including drafting.
AutoCAD develops the application in both the 2D and 3D formats and provide the information to the application.
AutoCAD provides tools to design the softwares used in the industry, architectures and project management.
It provides an easy way to design the software with the designs and architect it according to the need.

5.What is the purpose of AutoCAD software?

AutoCAD software provides the design and the shape for the products that needs to be created.
It provides flexible and user friendly features with the tools to design the applications and document the workflows.
This involves aggregate and import models for the formats and usually allows the design to get created without any change in source model.
It provides tools to provide the formats by detailed designing the layouts and drawings using the views automatically.
It also has the provision to create detailed design layouts and views can be drawn automatically using the source model.

6.What are the shortcut keys used in cadd?

ALT+F11 / Displays the Visual Basic Editor (AutoCAD only)
ALT+F8 / Displays the Macros dialog box (AutoCAD only)
CTRL+F2 / Displays the Text window
CTRL+0 / Toggles Clean Screen
CTRL+1 / Toggles Properties palette
CTRL+2 / Toggles DesignCenter
CTRL+3 / Toggles the Tool Palettes window
CTRL+4 / Toggles Sheet Set Manager
CTRL+6 / Toggles dbConnect Manager (AutoCAD only)
CTRL+7 / Toggles Markup Set Manager
CTRL+8 / Toggles the QuickCalc palette
CTRL+9 / Toggles the Command Line window
CTRL+A / Selects all the objects in drawing that are not locked or frozen
CTRL+SHIFT+A / Toggles Groups
CTRL+B / Toggles Snap
CTRL+C / Copies objects to the Windows Clipboard
CTRL+SHIFT+C / Copies objects to the Windows Clipboard with Base Point
CTRL+D / Toggles Dynamic UCS (AutoCAD only)
CTRL+E / Cycles through isometric planes
CTRL+F / Toggles running object snaps
CTRL+G / Toggles Grid
CTRL+HOME / Moves focus to the Start tab
CTRL+SHIFT+H / Toggles the display of palettes with HIDEPALETTES and SHOWPALETTES
CTRL+I / Toggles the Coordinates display (AutoCAD only)
CTRL+SHIFT+I / Toggles Infer Constraints (AutoCAD only)
CTRL+J / Repeats last command
CTRL+K / Inserts a hyperlink
CTRL+L / Toggles Ortho mode
CTRL+SHIFT+L / Selects the previously selected objects
CTRL+M / Repeats last command
CTRL+N / Creates a new drawing
CTRL+O / Opens an existing drawing
CTRL+P / Plots the current drawing
CTRL+SHIFT+P / Toggles the Quick Properties interface
CTRL+Q / Quits the application
CTRL+R / Cycles through the viewports on the current layout
CTRL+S / Saves current drawing
CTRL+SHIFT+S / Displays up the Save As dialog box
CTRL+T / Toggles Tablet mode
CTRL+V / Pastes data from the Windows Clipboard
CTRL+SHIFT+V / Pastes data from the Windows Clipboard as a Block
CTRL+W / Toggles selection cycling
CTRL+X / Cuts objects from the current drawing to the Windows Clipboard
CTRL+Y / Cancels the preceding Undo action
CTRL+Z / Reverses the last action
CTRL+[ / Cancels current command
CTRL+\ / Cancels current command
CTRL+PAGE UP / Moves to the previous layout
CTRL+PAGE DOWN / Moves to the next layout tab
CTRL+TAB / Moves to the next file tab

7.List draw commands.

Line , Circle special Line Polylines Text Arc Rectangle Donut Hatch

8. List the modify commands.

Trim Mirror Copy Scale Earse Cut Stretch offset Move Fillet

9.What is command prompt area?

This is a horizontal script located at the bottom of actual Draw Area.It is used for data input that is center point of input starting point of line and ending point of line etc…..

10.Explain break and trim commands.

Break: This command help in splitting one single into two separate lines

Trim: It helps in cutting or erasing the extra part of the line beyond the intersection point.

10.Explain stretch and offset commands.

Stretch: It helps in stretching or extending a line upto a required point

Offset: It helps to create replicates of the object at a given distance

11.Explain Array command.

The array command in AutoCAD is used to make multiple copies of objects. Although you can use the copy command to duplicate objects, the array command is more flexible and precise. One advantage of using the array command is that it allows you to copy objects in a defined angle and exact number of copies. Therefore, you can create array in various pattern. For example, you can show multiple objects in a row, column, or irregular pattern such as a spiral.

11. Explain Polar Array & Rectangular Array

Polar array

1. Type Array in the command line or select from the modify toolbar.
2. Select the object you would like to array.
3. Enter or select the center point of rotation for the object.
4. Select a method of array. (3 methods to choose from see terms definitions below).
5. Enter the number of items to array. (Methods 1 and 2).
6. Enter the array angle. (Methods 1 and 3).
7. Enter the angle between the objects. (Methods 2 and 3).
8. Make sure to check “Rotate items as copied” if you would like to copy the objects as selected.
9. For Object base point use the default selected. (Optional step).
10. Select the Preview button to see the sample array before you hit the Ok button. You can accept the array or modify it. (Optional step).

Rectangular array

1. Type Array in the command line or select from the modify toolbar.
2. Select the object you would like to array.
3. Input the number of rows. (negative number for downward array)
4. Input the number of columns. (negative number will point array to the left)
5. Pick or input the distance for the Row offset.
6. Pick or input the distance for the Column offset.
7. Enter the Angle for the array. (Use the default 0 degree).
8. Select the Preview button to see the sample array before you hit the Ok button. You can accept the array or modify it. (Optional step).

12.Explain 3D Drawing and Viewing

When CAD programs were first developed, they were used to create 2D drawings. This was the natural progression from traditional (manual) drafting, which is strictly 2D on paper. As computers and CAD programs became more advanced, 3D capabilities were added. At first,

these capabilities made it easier to draw 3D rep-resentations, such as isometrics and perspectives,

but these representations are really 2D drawings. Eventually, “true” 3D modeling capabilities were added to CAD programs. These features allow you to design, model, analyze, and in some cases “premachine” a part all within the computer.

13. Explain Isometric Drawing

An isometric drawing

is a traditional 2D pictorial drawing. It shows a 3D representation o f a n o b j e c t , b u t i t i s r e a l l y o n l y t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l . If you could rotate the “paper”

computer screen, there would be no part of the object behind the current drawing plane. Some

CAD programs have drawing aids to help make isometric drawings. These drawing aids typically are a rotated grid, orthographic cur-sor, and snap representing the three isometric

planes (top, left, right). The way in which these drawing aids are activated varies with the CAD

program being used.

14. Explain 3D Modeling

A more realistic type of 3D drawing is called 3D modeling This is “true” 3D where objects are

created with a width, depth, and height. Unlike isometric drawing, if you rotate the screen “paper,” you can see “behind” the object.

15.Explain Arc Command.

An arc is a portion of a circle. Just as the Circlecommand automates the creation of a

circle, the Arccommand automates the creation of an arc, . Most CAD software allows

you to select from several methods of defining an arc. Examples include:

Three points on the arc.

Starting point, center, and endpoint.

Starting point, center, and included angle.

Starting point, center, and length of chord.

Starting point, endpoint, and radius.

Starting point, endpoint, and included


Starting point, endpoint, and a starting


16.Explain Chamfer Command.

The Chamfer command is very similar to the Fillet command. However, instead of a curve, a straight line is placed between the chamfered lines. Just as with the Filletcommand, the origi-nal lines are trimmed to meet the straight line (chamfer). Depending on the CAD program,

this command may require that the two objects to be chamfered are lines, not arc segments.

17.Explain Scale Command.

The size of existing objects can be changed using the Scale command. When using the Scale

command, most CAD programs require you to specify a base point for the operation. This point

is generally on the object, often the center of the object or a reference corner.In CAD programs with parametric model-ing capability, you can change the base size parameter, or any other parameter, of the object without using the Scale command.

18. Explain Copy Command.

The Copy command usually functions in much the same way as the Move command. However, it is used to place copies of the selected objects at the specified location without altering the original objects. Many CAD programs offer a “multiple” option with this command. This option is sometimes the default option and allows multiple copies of the selected objects to be placed in sequence.

19.What is the thickness of main wall and partition wall?

Main Wall-0.3m

Partitopn Wall-0.15m

20.What is the height of a room?

3 or 3.1 m

21.Define Footing

the ability of your feet to stay where you put them as you walk, run, etc.

the condition of the ground that makes it easy or hard for your feet to stay where you put them as you walk or run

21.Define Sub Structure

a structure forming the foundation of a building or other construction./the foundations, piers, and abutments upon which the trusses or girders of the spans of a bridge rest./any basic structure or organization.

21.Define Super Structure

the part of a building or construction entirely above its foundation or basement./any structure built on something else. /the overlying framework or features of an organization, institution, or system, built or superimposed on a more fundamental base. /Nautical. any construction built above the main deck of a vessel as an upward continuation of the sides.

22.Differnt Types of Stairs

  • Straight run stairs
  • L stairs
  • Double L stairs
  • U stairs
  • Spiral stairs
  • Winder stairs
  • Newel Post: The post at the end of a staircase and balustrade .


Baluster: The vertical post in a balustrade.

Balustrade: The collection of rails and posts with a rail along the top that form the waist height wall to the sides of stairs or to a terrace or balcony.

Landing: the flat piece of a stair allowing the climber to rest before climbing again in the same direction or providing a safe place to turn and continue climbing the stair.

Hand Rail: a continuous rail on top of the balustrade to aid the stair user in climbing and decending the stair.

24.Two Main Stair Components

The two main parts of the staircase are the tread and the riser.

The tread is the horizontal element where we place our feet.

The riser is the vertical element that separates the treads.

25.Define Lintel

A lintel is a structural horizontal block that spans the space or opening between two vertical supports. It can be a load-bearing building component, a decorative architectural element, or a combined ornamented structural item. It is often found over portals, doors, windows, and fireplaces.