Appendix 2 Multivariate Normal Distribution

Appendix 2 Multivariate Normal Distribution

Appendix 2 Multivariate Normal Distribution

In this chapter, the following topics will be discussed:


Moment generating function and independence of normal variables

Quadratic forms in normal variable



Let . Then, the density function is

Definition (Multivariate Normal Random Variable):

A random vector

with has the density function



Since is positive definite, , where is a real orthogonal matrix () and . Then,

. Thus,

where . Further,

Therefore, if we can prove and are mutually independent, then


The joint density function of is



Therefore, the density function of

Therefore, and are mutually independent.

2.2Moment Generating Function and Independence of Normal Random Variables

Moment Generating Function of Multivariate Normal Random Variable:



Then, the moment generating function for Yis


If and C is a matrix of rank p, then



Let . Then,

Since is the moment generating function of ,

. ◆


If then


where Tis an orthogonal matrix.


If , then the marginal distribution of subset of the elements of Y is also multivariate normal.

, then , where


Y has a multivariate normal distribution if and only if is univariate normal for all real vectors a.


Suppose . is univariate normal. Also,


Then,. Since



is the moment generating function of , thus Y has a multivariate distribution .

By the previous theorem. ◆

2.3Quadratic Form in Normal Variables


If and let P be an symmetric matrix of rank r. Then,

is distributed as if and only if (i.e., P is idempotent).


Suppose and . Then, Phas r eigenvalues equal to 1 and eigenvalues equal to 0. Thus, without loss generalization,

where T is an orthogonal matrix. Then,

Since and , thus


are i.i.d.normal random variables with common variance . Therefore,

Since P is symmetric, , where T is an orthogonal matrix and is a diagonal matrix with elements . Thus, let . Since ,


That is, are independent normal random variable with variance . Then,

The moment generating function of is

Also, sinceQis distributed as , the moment generating function is also equal to . Thus, for every t,



By the uniqueness of polynomial roots, we must have . Then, by the following result:

a matrix P is symmetric, then P is idempotent and rank r if and only if it has r eigenvalues equal to 1 and n-r eigenvalues equal to 0. ◆

Important Result:

Let and let and be both distributed as chi-square. Then, and are independent if and only if .

Useful Lemma:

If , and is semi-positive definite, then

 is idempotent.


If and let

If , then and are independent and .


We first prove ., thus

Since , is any vector in . Therefore, is semidefinite. By the above useful lemma, is idempotent. Further, by the previous theorem,


We now prove and are independent. Since

By the previous important result, the proof is complete. ◆