VGMSummary of the Final Omnibus HIPAA/HITECH Rules
(Sample Business Associate Agreement Template Included)
On January 25, 2013, the Federal Register published final omnibus rules written by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to modify the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Breach Notification and Enforcement Rules. The modifications implement most of the privacy and security provisions of the HITECH Act and relevant provisions of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act.
Individuals, organizations, and agencies that meet the definition of a covered entity under HIPAA must comply with the Rules' requirements to protect the privacy and security of health information and must provide individuals with certain rights with respect to their health information. If a covered entity engages a business associate to help it carry out its health care activities and functions, the covered entity must have a written business associate contract or other arrangement with the business associate that establishes specifically what the business associate has been engaged to do and requires the business associate to comply with the Rules’ requirements to protect the privacy and security of protected health information. In addition to these contractual obligations, business associates are directly liable for compliance with certain provisions of the HIPAA Rules. (If an entity does not meet the definition of a covered entity or business associate, it does not have to comply with the HIPAA Rules. See formal definitions of “business associate” and “covered entity” at 45 CFR 160.103.)
A Covered Entity is one of the following:A Health Care Provider / A Health Plan / A Health Care Clearinghouse
This includes providers such as:
- DMEPOS Suppliers
- Nursing Homes
- Health insurance companies
- Company health plans
- Government programs that pay for health care, such as Medicare, Medicaid, and the military and veterans health care programs
Who is a Business Associate?
Services that do business with health care providers may or may not be business associates. The determining factor generally is "it depends on what you do on behalf of a covered entity, and specifically the kind of data that you interact with." In the general case, the definition of Business Associate is a person or entity that in which the covered entity participatesbut is not a member of the covered entity’s workforce (e.g., not an employee). This person or entity may perform, or assist in the performance of a function or activity involving the use or disclosure of individually identifiable health information, such as claims processing or administration, data analysis, processing or administration, utilization review, quality assurance, billing, benefit management, practice management, and repricing.
The person or entity may providelegal, actuarial, accounting, consulting, data aggregation, management, administrative, accreditation, or financial services to or for such covered entity, or to or for an organized health care arrangement in which the covered entity participates, where the provision of the service involves the disclosure of individually identifiable health information. The key test however, is whether this "person" (or company) requires the disclosure of "individually identifiable health information" in order to deliver their product or service to, or on behalf of, the covered entity.
Addressing the pivotal question of “who is a business associate,” the Omnibus Rule makes a number of modifications to the existing definition of “business associate.” HHS has added the word “maintains” to the definition to clarify that entities that store or maintain PHI are business associates. Generally, a business associate includes a person (or entity) who creates, receives, maintains or transmits PHI on behalf of a covered entity. Additionally, the definition now includes the HITECH Act-mandated specific inclusion of:
- Health Information Organization, E-prescribing Gateway, or other person that provides data transmission services with respect to PHI to a covered entity and that requires access on a routine basis to such PHI, and
- a person that offers a personal health record to one or more individuals on behalf of a covered entity.
Additionally, through the Omnibus Rule HHS finalized its proposal to extend the HIPAA rules to subcontractors. Subcontractors are specifically included right in the modified definition of “business associate.”
- A subcontractor that creates, receives, maintains, or transmits PHI on behalf of the business associate. (A subcontractor is now defined as a person to whom a business associate delegates a function, activity, or service, other than in the capacity of a member of the workforce of such business associate.)
In adopting its proposal, HHS maintains that it has authority to do so under the HITECH Act and notes that the intent of this extension of the rules was to “avoid having privacy and security protections for protected health information lapse merely because a function is performed by an entity that is a subcontractor rather than an entity with a direct relationship with a covered entity.” HHS clarifies that this extension of the rules is not limited to “first tier” subcontractors but also applies to downstream contractors that create, receive, maintain or transmit PHI for or on behalf of business associates or subcontractors.
Direct Liability of Business Associates and Subcontractors
With the final adoption of these changes, business associates and subcontractors are directly liable for violations of applicable HIPAA privacy, security and breach notification rules, including:
- compliance with the HIPAA Security Rule’s administrative, physical and technical safeguards and certain documentation requirements
- impermissible uses and disclosures of PHI and certain other requirements under the Privacy Rule, including providing an accounting of disclosures of PHI and failing to disclose PHI as needed to respond to an individual’s request for an copy of electronic PHI
- notification of a covered entity of a breach of unsecured PHI
- compliance with documentation requirements including executing business associate agreements
- failing to disclose PHI when required by the Secretary of HHS to determine the business associate’s compliance.
This direct liability is in addition to contractual liability under business associate agreements. In discussing the modifications to the Security Rule requirements, HHS notes that as business associates, and their subcontractors, are already contractually obligated to comply with these requirements, compliance will only require “modest improvements.” HHS does also recognize, however, that some business associates may not have engaged in the formal administrative safeguards such as performing the risk analysis. Notwithstanding HHS’s view of the size of the task ahead, coming into compliance with the HIPAA Rules will be a significant undertaking for business associates and business associate subcontractors who will need to conduct, or revisit, their risk analysis and develop and implement a HIPAA compliance program.
Business Associate Agreements
Covered entities and business associates are required to obtain “satisfactory assurances” through execution of business associate agreements with their business associates and subcontractor business associates. The Omnibus Rule includes modifications to the requirements for business associate agreements, both within the Privacy Rule and within the Security Rule. One such change clarifies that the obligation to obtain satisfactory assurances from a business associate that is a subcontractor is the obligation of the business associate and not an obligation of the covered entity. Another provision imposes the obligation on a business associate that is aware of non-compliance by a subcontractor to respond as a covered entity would be required to, including terminating the agreement if necessary. Despite receiving many comments questioning the continued need for business associate agreements, HHS declined to eliminate the requirement and states that they continue to see a need for business associate agreements.
HHS discusses and confirms that both covered entities and business associates are liable for the violations due to the acts or omissions of their agents, under the federal common law standard of agency. Not all business associates are automatically agents of covered entities and not all subcontractors are agents of covered entities. Such liability depends on whether there is an agency relationship and whether the act or omission was within the scope of the agency.
Sample Business Associate Agreement
DMEPOS supplier and all covered entities can now refer to a sample business associate agreement released recently by the Department of Health and Human Services Office for Civil Rights.
The omnibus rule extends HIPAA regulations to business associates, including subcontractors, that work with healthcare providers. This places a responsibility on entities covered by HIPAA to revise their business associate agreements.
The sample business associate agreement specifies a number of obligations a business associate has regarding health information safeguards and disclosure, as well as obligations for proper handling of information after the contract termination. The language can be changed to more appropriately cover relationships between parties to the agreement.
Existing business associate agreements must be updated by September 2014, according to the omnibus rule. Covered entities and business associates must be in compliance with most provisions of the rule by Sept. 23 of this year.
SAMPLE BUSINESS ASSOCIATE AGREEMENT PROVISIONS
(Published January 25, 2013)
A “business associate” is a person or entity, other than a member of the workforce of a covered entity, who performs functions or activities on behalf of, or provides certain services to, a covered entity that involve access by the business associate to protected health information. A “business associate” also is a subcontractor that creates, receives, maintains, or transmits protected health information on behalf of another business associate. The HIPAA Rules generally require that covered entities and business associates enter into contracts with their business associates to ensure that the business associates will appropriately safeguard protected health information. The business associate contract also serves to clarify and limit, as appropriate, the permissible uses and disclosures of protected health information by the business associate, based on the relationship between the parties and the activities or services being performed by the business associate. A business associate may use or disclose protected health information only as permitted or required by its business associate contract or as required by law. A business associate is directly liable under the HIPAA Rules and subject to civil and, in some cases, criminal penalties for making uses and disclosures of protected health information that are not authorized by its contract or required by law. A business associate also is directly liable and subject to civil penalties for failing to safeguard electronic protected health information in accordance with the HIPAA Security Rule.
A written contract between a covered entity and a business associate must: (1) establish the permitted and required uses and disclosures of protected health information by the business associate; (2) provide that the business associate will not use or further disclose the information other than as permitted or required by the contract or as required by law; (3) require the business associate to implement appropriate safeguards to prevent unauthorized use or disclosure of the information, including implementing requirements of the HIPAA Security Rule with regard to electronic protected health information; (4) require the business associate to report to the covered entity any use or disclosure of the information not provided for by its contract, including incidents that constitute breaches of unsecured protected health information; (5) require the business associate to disclose protected health information as specified in its contract to satisfy a covered entity’s obligation with respect to individuals' requests for copies of their protected health information, as well as make available protected health information for amendments (and incorporate any amendments, if required) and accountings; (6) to the extent the business associate is to carry out a covered entity’s obligation under the Privacy Rule, require the business associate to comply with the requirements applicable to the obligation; (7) require the business associate to make available to HHS its internal practices, books, and records relating to the use and disclosure of protected health information received from, or created or received by the business associate on behalf of, the covered entity for purposes of HHS determining the covered entity’s compliance with the HIPAA Privacy Rule; (8) at termination of the contract, if feasible, require the business associate to return or destroy all protected health information received from, or created or received by the business associate on behalf of, the covered entity; (9) require the business associate to ensure that any subcontractors it may engage on its behalf that will have access to protected health information agree to the same restrictions and conditions that apply to the business associate with respect to such information; and (10) authorize termination of the contract by the covered entity if the business associate violates a material term of the contract. Contracts between business associates and business associates that are subcontractors are subject to these same requirements.
This document includes sample business associate agreement provisions to help covered entities and business associates more easily comply with the business associate contract requirements. While these sample provisions are written for the purposes of the contract between a covered entity and its business associate, the language may be adapted for purposes of the contract between a business associate and subcontractor.
This is only sample language and use of these sample provisions is not required for compliance with the HIPAA Rules. The language may be changed to more accurately reflect business arrangements between a covered entity and business associate or business associate and subcontractor. In addition, these or similar provisions may be incorporated into an agreement for the provision of services between a covered entity and business associate or business associate and subcontractor, or they may be incorporated into a separate business associate agreement. These provisions address only concepts and requirements set forth in the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Breach Notification, and Enforcement Rules, and alone may not be sufficient to result in a binding contract under State law. They do not include many formalities and substantive provisions that may be required or typically included in a valid contract. Reliance on this sample may not be sufficient for compliance with State law, and does not replace consultation with a lawyer or negotiations between the parties to the contract.
Sample Business Associate Agreement Provisions
Words or phrases contained in brackets are intended as either optional language or as instructions to the users of these sample provisions.
The following terms used in this Agreement shall have the same meaning as those terms in the HIPAA Rules: Breach, Data Aggregation, Designated Record Set, Disclosure, Health Care Operations, Individual, Minimum Necessary, Notice of Privacy Practices, Protected Health Information, Required By Law, Secretary, Security Incident, Subcontractor, Unsecured Protected Health Information, and Use.
(a) Business Associate. “Business Associate” shall generally have the same meaning as the term “business associate” at 45 CFR 160.103, and in reference to the party to this agreement, shall mean [Insert Name of Business Associate].
(b) Covered Entity. “Covered Entity” shall generally have the same meaning as the term “covered entity” at 45 CFR 160.103, and in reference to the party to this agreement, shall mean [Insert Name of Covered Entity].
(c) HIPAA Rules. “HIPAA Rules” shall mean the Privacy, Security, Breach Notification, and Enforcement Rules at 45 CFR Part 160 and Part 164.
Obligations and Activities of Business Associate
Business Associate agrees to:
(a) Not use or disclose protected health information other than as permitted or required by the Agreement or as required by law;
(b) Use appropriate safeguards, and comply with Subpart C of 45 CFR Part 164 with respect to electronic protected health information, to prevent use or disclosure of protected health information other than as provided for by the Agreement;
(c) Report to covered entity any use or disclosure of protected health information not provided for by the Agreement of which it becomes aware, including breaches of unsecured protected health information as required at 45 CFR 164.410, and any security incident of which it becomes aware;
[The parties may wish to add additional specificity regarding the breach notification obligations of the business associate, such as a stricter timeframe for the business associate to report a potential breach to the covered entity and/or whether the business associate will handle breach notifications to individuals, the HHS Office for Civil Rights (OCR), and potentially the media, on behalf of the covered entity.]
(d) In accordance with 45 CFR 164.502(e)(1)(ii) and 164.308(b)(2), if applicable, ensure that any subcontractors that create, receive, maintain, or transmit protected health information on behalf of the business associate agree to the same restrictions, conditions, and requirements that apply to the business associate with respect to such information;
(e) Make available protected health information in a designated record set to the [Choose either “covered entity” or “individual or the individual’s designee”] as necessary to satisfy covered entity’s obligations under 45 CFR 164.524;
[The parties may wish to add additional specificity regarding how the business associate will respond to a request for access that the business associate receives directly from the individual (such as whether and in what time and manner a business associate is to provide the requested access or whether the business associate will forward the individual’s request to the covered entity to fulfill) and the timeframe for the business associate to provide the information to the covered entity.]
(f) Make any amendment(s) to protected health information in a designated record set as directed or agreed to by the covered entity pursuant to 45 CFR 164.526, or take other measures as necessary to satisfy covered entity’s obligations under 45 CFR 164.526;