SUPPORTING INCLUSIVE PRACTICES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DIVERSE ABILITIES
RESEARCH / EVIDENCE RESOURCES / Children with Disabilities: State-Level Data from the American Community Survey (0-9)
This 2012 research brief from Child Trends provides data on the number and percentage of children identified as having a disability in the U.S., and for each of the states. It also presents information on the percentage of children with a disability living in poverty and data on health insurance status.
Commonly Asked Questions About Child Care Centers and the Americans with Disabilities Act (0-5)
The Department of Justice developed these questions and answers on serving children with disabilities in child care programs.
Continuity and Change From Full-Inclusion Early Childhood Programs Through the Early Elementary Period (3-8)
Children with mild developmental delays who were initially enrolled in full-inclusion preschool or kindergarten programs were followed for 3 years. Changes in the type of inclusive placements as children transitioned to first and second grades were monitored, and associations between placement type and child and family characteristics were examined. Results revealed a high level of continuity in that most children remained in partial or full inclusion settings over time. However, a substantial reduction in full-inclusion placements occurred between the 2nd and 3rd year when children were completing the transition to first and second grades. Placements in less inclusive settings were associated with children’s levels of cognitive and language development. The authors posit that placement in full-inclusion programs in the early childhood years creates a momentum to continue maximum participation in inclusive settings over time.
Dear Colleague Letter and Resource Guide on Students with ADHD (3-21)
The U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) recently issued guidance clarifying the obligation of schools to provide students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with equal educational opportunity under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The new guidance provides a broad overview of Section 504 and school districts' obligations to provide educational services to students with disabilities, including students with ADHD. Additional resources are also provided.
Dear Colleague Letter - Preschool Least Restrictive Environments (LRE) (3-5)
The Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) released this letter in January 2017 to provide updated guidance and clarification on: Key Statutory and Regulatory Requirements, Preschool Placement Options, Reporting Educational Environ-ments Data for Preschool Children with Disabilities, and Use of IDEA Part B Funds for Preschool Children with Disabilities. It reaffirms OSEP's position that all young children with disabilities should have access to inclusive high-quality early childhood programs where they are provided with individualized and appropriate supports to enable them to meet high expectations.
DEC Recommended Practices in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education 2014 (0-8)
The DEC Recommended Practices were developed to provide guidance to practitioners and families about the most effective ways to improve the learning outcomes and promote the development of young children, birth through 5, who have or are at-risk for developmental delays or disabilities. The purpose of this document is to help bridge the gap between research and practice by highlighting practices that result in better outcomes for young children with disabilities.
Early Childhood Inclusion: A Joint Position Statement of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (0-8)
The position statement contains a definition of early childhood inclusion and provides recommendations for families and professionals for improving early childhood services and policies with regards to inclusion.
Early Childhood Inclusion: Challenges and Strategies from the 2014 Preschool Inclusion Survey (3-5)
The 2014 Preschool Inclusion Survey, results of which are summarized in this document, affirmed that: 1) children with disabili-ties can be effectively educated in inclusive programs that use specialized instruction; 2) Inclusion benefits all children, both with and without disabilities; 3) families of all children generally have positive views of inclusion; 4) inclusion is not more expen-sive than separate instruction; and 5) children with disabilities do not need to be “ready” for enrollment in inclusive programs.
This collection was compiled and annotated by Camille Catlett for the Vermont Agency of Education and funded by the Vermont Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge Grant. It is current as of July 2017. Highlighted resources are available in English and Spanish.ecommended / SUPPORTING INCLUSIVE PRACTICES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DIVERSE ABILITIES
RESEARCH / EVIDENCE RESOURCES / Evidence-Based Practices for Children, Youth, and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder ()
While many interventions exist for autism spectrum disorder, scientific research has found only some of these interventions to be effective. The interventions that researchers have shown to be effective are called evidence-based practices (EBPs). This website is a source for information about evidence-based practices, including an overview and general description, instructions for implementation, an implementation checklist, and, often, a video example.
Fact Sheet of Research on Preschool Inclusion (3-5)
This 6-page handout presents 11 evidence-based facts that support inclusive practices in the preschool.
Identification of and Intervention with Challenging Behavior (0-5)
This 2007 position statement from the Division for Early Childhood emphasizes the importance of early identification of children with serious challenging behavior, the importance of partnerships among families and all relevant professionals, and the use of comprehensive assessment approaches.
The Importance of Early Intervention for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities and their Families (0-3)
Prepared by the Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center, this document provides a brief explanation for the importance of early intervention in young children with disabilities and their families.
Including Children with Disabilities in State Pre-K Programs (3-5)
This policy brief provides an overview of the law and sets forth a list of policy recommendations that can help ensure that children with disabilities receive an appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment.
Inclusion for Preschool Children with Disabilities: What We Know and Should Be Doing (3-5)
This brief summarizes what we know and what we should be doing to support high quality inclusion.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (0-21)
This webpage by the Early Childhood Technical Assistance (ECTA) Center contains links to information and resources about the IDEA. These include links to information about federal statutes and regulations as well as summaries of the IDEA 2004.
Parallels in Time (all)
Developed by the Minnesota Governor’s Council on Developmental Disabilities, this multimedia site contains an overview of the historical progress of developmental disabilities. A quiz show is also included.
People First Language (all)
Kathie Snow’s explanation of the many reasons for putting the person before the disability is a classic resource.
Policy Statement on Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Early Childhood Programs (0-5)
This September 2015 was developed to set a vision and provide recommendations to States, local educational agencies (LEAs), schools, and public and private early childhood programs, from the U.S. Departments of Education (ED) and Health and Human Services (HHS), for increasing the inclusion of infants, toddlers, and preschool children with disabilities in high-quality early childhood programs. The document provides a concise summary of the status of, challenges to, and opportunities for inclusion.
Preschool Inclusion: Key Findings from Research and Implications for Policy (3-5)
This report highlights research on preschool inclusion in three areas: effects of inclusive preschool on children's early learning and development, the quality of inclusive preschool programs, and how to improve the quality of inclusive preschool. The report also presents recommendations for policies that are supported by research including policies related to the funding of early care and education programs, states' professional development systems, and investments in gathering critical information about inclusive preschool programs for ongoing monitoring and quality improvement.
ecommended / SUPPORTING INCLUSIVE PRACTICES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DIVERSE ABILITIES
RESEARCH / EVIDENCE RESOURCES / Promoting Positive Outcomes for Children with Disabilities: Recommendations for Curriculum, Assessment, and Program Evaluation (0-8)
This 2007 position statement from the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) was created to serve as a companion document to a 2003 joint position statement, Early Childhood Curriculum, Assessment, and Program Evaluation—Building an Effective, Accountable System in Programs for Children Birth Through Age 8, created by the NAEYC and NAECS/SDE.
Research Synthesis Points on Early Childhood Inclusion (0-5)
This document highlights nine key conclusions, based on a review of the literature on early childhood inclusion. A list of references accompanies each key conclusion and some definitions are provided at the end of the document.
Research Synthesis Points on Practices That Support Inclusion (0-5)
This document provides brief descriptions and supporting references for the evidence-based and promising practices that support early childhood inclusion. These practices are organized into three major sections corresponding to the defining features of high quality early childhood inclusion as described in the joint position statement.
PRINT SOURCES / An Administrator’s Guide to Preschool Inclusion (3-5)
The purpose of this guide is to address issues administrators deal with in creating and supporting inclusive preschool programs. It discusses barriers and roadblocks that may be encountered and practical strategies for addressing them.
Classroom Routine Support Guides (2-8)
These guides were developed to assist teachers and caregivers in problem-solving a plan to support young children who are having challenging behavior. Organized around the routines/activities that would typically occur in an early childhood setting, the guide is designed to help early childhood professionals understand the purpose or meaning of the behavior, and to support them to select strategies to make the behavior irrelevant, inefficient, and ineffective. They can do this by selecting prevention strategies, teaching new skills, and changing responses to eliminate or minimize the challenging behavior, examples for which are provided in the guides.
- Routine-Based Support Guide (2-5) http://challengingbehavior.fmhi.usf.edu/do/resources/teaching_tools/toc/folder1/1e_routine_based.pdf
- Early Elementary K-2nd Grade (5-8) http://challengingbehavior.fmhi.usf.edu/do/resources/documents/tool_class_routine_guide_early_ele.pdf
Presented through the voice of a parent whose child is entering kindergarten, this article provides useful information and helpful points about collaboration with the family in the transition process.
Culturally Responsive Strategies to Support Young Children With Challenging Behavior (3-9)
This article describes five culturally responsive core strategies to promote positive teacher relationships with young children in preschool and minimize challenging behavior: learn about children and families, develop and teach expectations, take the child’s perspective, teach and model empathy, and use group times to discuss conflict. As African American boys experience a much higher rate of suspensions and expulsions from preschool settings than do other children (Gilliam 2005), these relationship-building techniques are particularly relevant for teachers as they reflect on their own practices and biases—especially toward African American boys—in early childhood classrooms.
Family Routine-Based Support Guide: Building Relationships with Infants (0-3) http://challengingbehavior.fmhi.usf.edu/do/resources/documents/tool_fam_routine_guide_infants.pdf
This guide was developed to assist family members and caregivers in developing plans to support and build relationships with older infants and toddlers who are using challenging behavior. It uses daily routines to promote understanding of what children may be communicating through the challenging behavior, provide strategies that can help a child participate in a routine without having challenging behavior, and offer ideas on how to respond in ways to keep the behavior from happening.
SUPPORTING INCLUSIVE PRACTICES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DIVERSE ABILITIES
PRINT SOURCES / Family Routine Based Support Guide: Early Elementary (4-8) http://challengingbehavior.fmhi.usf.edu/do/resources/documents/tool_fam_routine_guide_early_ele.pdf
This guide was developed to assist family members and caregivers in young children who are using challenging behavior, as well as in developing supportive plans for addressing/reducing those behaviors in the future. The examples are clear and relevant to the routines that are part of family life.
How Inclusion is Benefitting One Child Without Disabilities: Dillon’s Story (3-5) http://ici.umn.edu/products/impact/221/9.html
This one-page article shares the perspectives of the family of a young child who is typically developing regarding the benefits they see accruing from their son’s participation in inclusive early childhood programs.
Implementing the Project Approach in an Inclusive Classroom: A Teacher’s First Attempt With Project-Based Learning (3-5)
In this article, the author explores how a teacher can implement the project approach in an inclusive classroom in a preschool that has a history of structured, teacher-driven curriculum.
The Importance of Belonging (0-9)
David Pitonyak’s 2014 publication poignantly and persuasively underscores the importance of belonging and membership for individuals with and without disabilities.
Including Children with Special Needs: Are You and Your Program Ready? (3-6)
This article provides some basic principles of inclusion, a list of recommended resources, and a Preschool and Kindergarten Inclusion Readiness Checklist that includes a section for all children and other sections on specific disability types.
Integrating Principles of Universal Design into the Early Childhood Curriculum (3-8)
The authors offer examples and recommendations for how teachers of young children can support each young learner in diverse early learning settings by using Universal Design for Learning.
Integrating Therapy into the Classroom (3-5) https://www.uvm.edu/~cdci/iteam/documents/IntegratingTherapyIntoClassrooms1.pdf
This short publication packs in a great deal of relevant information: evidence for the benefits of integrated therapy plus discipline-specific insights from an occupational therapist, speech language-pathologist, physical therapist, and special educator. Suggestions for how to talk with family members about integrated therapy are also provided.
Making the Most of Creativity in Activities for Young Children with Disabilities (3-5)
Using the MOST (Materials + Objectives + Space + Time) approach, this article offers practical suggestions and planning tips for including children with disabilities in classroom activities. Examples of how the MOST approach can be used for children with visual impairments, hearing impairments, autism, or physical disabilities are presented in a chart.
Moving Bodies, Building Minds: Foster Preschoolers’ Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Through Movement (3-5)
This article explains how critical thinking and problem-solving skills can be developed in preschoolers through movement. It also offers strategies for using movement activities, considerations for children with special needs and family connections.
Moving Right Along. . . Planning Transitions to Prevent Challenging Behavior (3-5)
The authors discuss why challenging behavior occurs during transitions, strategies for planning and implementing more effective transitions, ideas for using transitions to teach social skills and emotional competencies, and a planning process for working with children who continue to have difficulty during transitions.
Natural Environments: A Letter From a Mother to Friends, Families, and Professionals (0-5)
Written from a family perspective, this article highlights the many opportunities within daily family routines to incorporate practice on targeted areas of development.
SUPPORTING INCLUSIVE PRACTICES FOR YOUNG CHILDREN WITH DIVERSE ABILITIES
PRINT SOURCES / New Mexico Early Childhood Guide for Inclusion Birth – 5 (0-5) https://www.cdd.unm.edu/ecln/PSN/common/pdfs/Inclusion%20Guide%20April%201.pdf
The Guide supports the alliance among early care and education practitioners and administrators in working together to assist young children under the age of five in attaining their joint goal of positive developmental outcomes for children.
Partnering with Families of Children with Special Needs (0-5)
Intended for educators, this article provides readers with an understanding of the experience and processes that families go through upon learning their child has a disability, as well basic information about IFSP and IEP services. It also explains several strategies for working with families with children with disabilities.
Supporting Families of Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Programs
Accompanied by short vignettes, Louise Kaczmarek’s article provides early childhood teachers and early childhood intervention service providers with strategies and suggestions for supporting families of children with disabilities.
Supporting Young Children with Disabilities (0-9)
This Fall 2016 article reviews effective ways to support development and learning among young children with disabilities, including language and social skills interventions, preschool curricula, effective instructional practices, and multi-tiered systems of support.