The Liberator: Simón Bolívar GH2/Napp
“The colonists in the Spanish Empire had many reasons to resent Spanish rule. The Spanish government controlled trade for the benefit of Spain. The colonies had to buy manufactured goods from the home country and sell their products to Spain only. This mercantilist policy kept wealth flowing into Spain. It did little to help the colonists.
The unequal distribution of wealth and power among the Latin Americans created another source of resentment. Spain gave important political and military jobs only to peninsulares. These people had been born in Spain, which with Portugal, is part of the Iberian Peninsula. Creoles, colonists born in Latin America to Spanish parents, wanted more power for themselves. They tended to be wealthy landowners, mine owners, and businesspeople. Mestizos, children of Spanish and Indian parents, also wanted a share of the political power. They tended to work in towns or be overseers on estates. The peons, who made up the largest part of the population, were Indians and people of mixed and African heritage. Most peons worked on the great estates and in the mines. They had no land of their own and lived in poverty. They had little hope of achieving wealth or power.”
~ Global History: The Growth of Civilizations
Write the five most important facts you learned from the passage in the space below:
- Mercantilism: Benefitting the Mother Country
- The belief that colonies exist to benefit the mother country
1- The mother country controls all trade
2- Colonists buy manufactured goods from the mother country
3- Colonists sell their products only to the mother country
4- Wealth flows to the mother country
- Creoles led independence movements
1-Born in the Americas of Spanish ancestry
2- Denied top political and military jobs
3- Wealthy landowners
- Inspired by American and French Revolutions
- Simón Bolívar
- Led independence movements in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador
- Creole leader
- Hoped to create a union of all Latin American states (Gran Colombia) but geographic factors and regional differences prevented unity
- Independence benefitted creoles
- Define mercantilism.
- Why did the colonists resent mercantilism?
- In the space below, create a hierarchy (triangle of power/ranking system) of colonial Latin America.
- Why did creoles lead independence movements?
- Why would the American and French Revolutions inspire the Latin American colonists?
- Who was Simón Bolívar and why was he important?
- What was Gran Colombia and why did it fail?
- Latin America was settled by what two European countries?
- Spain and Portugal
- France and Spain
- Germany and Italy
- Portugal and France
- The children of Spanish colonists and Native Americans were called
- Creoles C. Indians
- Mestizos D. Peninsulares
- Simón ______is called the George Washington of South America.
- Bolívar C. L’Ouverture
- Robespierre D. O’Higgins
- Bolívar’s vision of a united South America was called
- The Latin Federation
- Gran Colombia
- The United South
- The United America
- What country colonized Brazil? ______
- Did the British conquer any land in South America? ______
- By 1828, what happened to most South American colonies? ______
- What happened to British, Dutch and French colonies in South America by 1828? ______
- Using evidence from the map, prove that Bolivar’s dream of a united Latin America was not realized in 1828? ______
Critical Thinking Question:
How did geography shatter Bolívar’s dream? Explain your answer in the space below.
- Define mercantilism. ______
- List three ways that Spain benefitted from mercantilism:
- List three ways mercantilism harmed the colonists of Latin America:
- Who held the important political and military jobs in the colonies? ______
- Define peninsulares. ______
- Who was Simon Bolivar? ______
Critical Thinking Question:
Would daily life for the majority of South Americans have been better today if Simón Bolívar’s vision of a Gran Colombia had not failed? Explain your answer in the space below.