Template for Preparation by EURES Beneficiaries of The

Template for Preparation by EURES Beneficiaries of The

Template for preparation by EURES beneficiaries of the

Evaluation Report on EURES activities 2010-2013

(Report in accordance with the EURES charter (2003/106/03) and objectives set by Regulation (EEC) 1612/68 (now codified EU No 492/2011, part II Commission Decision No 2003/8//EC of 23 December 2002 implementing Regulation (EU) No 492/2011 as regards the clearance of vacancies and applications for employment).

Please fill in the enclosed template

(preferably in English)

and submit it to Commission by 15 December2013

TEMPLATE FOR EURES MEMBERS (EM)

EURES evaluation report 2010-2013
EURES Member:Latvia
- Partnership Agreement number: VP/2010/0289
- Specific agreements numbers:
VS/2010/0665; VS/2011/0241; VS/2012/0151
- Option 1- cross border activities in the region: none
EM-A. CONTEXT

EM-A 1. Geographic Mobility trends

EM-A 1.1 Geographic Mobility trends in your country at national level (onlyfor EURES member actionat national level)[1]

EM-A 1.1.1 EURES member action at national level:Describe the type of mobility flows for your country:
Please describe the mobility patterns of workers going abroad orcoming in. Pleaseelaborate with reference to sectoral or skill-level or regional differences, etc. where appropriate.Please cite your source of information.
In years before the economic crisis worker mobility was mostly motivated by the new experiences workers could get in foreign countries or was pursued by people who could not find a job in Latvia because of their lack of qualification or work experience. Hence, these were mostly workers with secondary or lower education who worked less qualified jobs and their mobility was often circular – they worked seasonal jobs for a limited time and then went back to their families in Latvia. When the downfall in economic situation (circa 2008) started, profile of people who looked for jobs abroad expanded and changed – those were not only aforementioned workers, but middle and higher level specialists as well who in Latviawere not able to find job or the salary offered was not satisfactory. Nonetheless, when they currentlygo abroad they are employed at jobs that are of a lower level and inadequate for them whentheir training and previous job experience is taken into account. Workers from Latvia are mostly employed in such sectors as agriculture or industrial manufacturing. Research shows that if before economic crisis workers more relied on official routes of finding job, then in the last few years they have used informal channels for the same purpose more often than the official ones. (Apsite, Krisjane, Berzins 2012, Apsite-Berina 2013)
Migration has seriously depleted population of Latvia, so Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Economics together with different NGO’s have created a re-emigration plan. The goal of this plan is to bring back people who have left Latvia and to fill unemployed job positions with nationals from Latvia, not immigrants from other countries. (Akule 2012) This could influence mobility patterns in the future and consequently would have an influence to working environment for EURES Latvia.
References: Akule, D. 2012. Informative report of proposed actions for support of re-emigration. Available at:
Apsite-Berina, E. 2013. International migration in the European Union: Latvian migrants in the United Kingdom. PhD.University of Latvia.Available at:
Apsite, E., Krisjane, Z., Berzins, M., 2012. Emigration from Latvia under economic crisis conditions. University of Latvia. 2nd International Conference on Social Science and Humanity, IPEDR vol.31, IACSIT Press, Singapore. Available at:
The cabinet of Ministers, 2013. Plan of proposed actions for support of re-emigration2013-2016. Order No.356 Available at:
EM-A 1.1.2 EURES member action at national level:Provide an overall estimation of the size of the mobilitypatterns providing:
-figures for overall size of inflow and outflow per year;
- figures in relation to the 3 to 5 main countries from which most employees come and/or to which most employees go, where appropriate;
- any other figures showing the trends and the mobility challenges in your country.
Please cite your sources of information.
As the borders are open and people are free to travel and work where and as they choose, there is no hard data concerning mobility patterns. Only conclusions that can be made about this topic have been extracted from overall long-term migration numbers. As it has been already stated in EM-A 1.1.1, economic migration is the leading cause of migration in Latvia, leaving behind any other, so while the exact numbers are not 100% applicable to worker mobility, they should be very close and so, capable of giving an insight into the current situation of worker mobility patterns.
The Section 15 of the Chapter IV of the Population Register Law of Latvia states that people who leave and plan to stay in other countries for more than six months have to inform Office of Citizenship and Migration affairs, but not everybody does it, so the emigrationdata is incomplete and the real numbers could be higher. Statistics from Latvian Office of Citizenship and Migration affairs about number of Latvian nationals in other countries by January 2013 show that there are currently 85 775 such people.
Migrants mostly choose to go to other European countries and statistics compiled by Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia (CSB) show that their wish to live and/or work in European Union (EU) countries has been increasing – in year 2010 66% people who emigrated from Latvia, chose to go to one of the EU countries, in year 2011 the number of people who preferred EU increased to 85%, while in year 2012number of emigrants to EU remained quite steady, falling only by 4% and remaining at81%. 49% of immigrants in 2010 were from EU. There was a decrease in 2011, when only 28% of immigrants were from EU countries, while the biggest part, 69,3% of immigrants came from other countries. 2012 has brought change and Latvia has been most interesting to immigrants from EU – 54.9% and Russia 22.6%.
Information available at data base ofCentral Statistical Bureau of Latvia (CSB) tells that in2010migration balance was -35640, with immigration being at 4011 and emigration 39651. Emigrants mostly chose to go to United Kingdom, Russia and Ireland. 68% of the emigrants from Latvia and 24% of the immigrants to Latvia had Latvian citizenship. Immigrants were mainly men – 52.8%, but majority of the emigrants (54.2%) were women.
In year 2011 migration balance was still negative:-20077, with immigration being at 10234 and emigration at 30311. Workers mostly chose to go to United Kingdom, Germany and Ireland. (Data from CSB) Information from report done by SEA about unemployment situation in Latvia in December 2011 offers similar data – Germany has interested 26,6% of the EURES Latvia customers, 17,6% have been interested in United Kingdoms, while Norway was interesting for 14,7%. Next in line were Finland (9,2%), Denmark (5,1%) and Sweden (4,7%).
In year 2012 migration balance was -11860, where immigration number was 13303, while emigration remained quite high at 25163. According to report by SEA about unemployment situation in Latvia in December 2012, 30% of EURES Latvia customers in year 2012 showed interest to work in United Kingdom, 24% about work opportunities inGermany and 11% were interested in Norway. Finland (8%) and Sweden (4%) were also considered by number of people.
While the migration data is not yet available for the year 2013, some estimation can be made by looking at the report done by SEA of the period January-June of people who used the opportunity to consult with EURES Latvia. Ergo, the most interesting for customers was United Kingdom – 26%, next was Germany with 20% of customer interest, followed by Norway with 11%. Finland (9%) and Sweden (7%) are still in the 4th and 5th place of interest for workers.
Consequently it can be seen that worker interest has not changed much in years 2010-2013, United Kingdom has kept the top position as the most attractive for workers, with exception in the year 2011 when the border to Germany was opened. Since then Germany’s job market has been decidedly valued highly as well, keeping it in the second position of interest showed by EURES Latvia customers. The discrepancy that can be seen when comparing data by CSB and data by EURES Latvia can be easily explained – first, people have more inquiries about new possible work places where they might not possibly have contacts and thus informal routes already available; second, decision to work in another country is not an easy one and the process is not always fast, so from the moment of inquiry in EURES Latvia office, till the fact of working abroad some time will pass and the shift in time is inevitable .
References:Central Statistics Bureau, 2010. Actual Tendencies of migration of nationals of Latvia. Available at:
Central Statistics Bureau, 2011. Migration of nationals of Latvia. Available at:
Office of Citizenship and Migration affairs, 2013. Number of Latvian nationals in other countries Available at:
State employment agency, 2011. Unemployment situation in the country. Available at:
State employment agency, 2012. Unemployment situation in the country. Available at:
State employment agency, 2013. Unemployment situation in the country. Available at:
EM-A 1.1.3 EURES member action at national level:List key countries with which co-operation took place.
- What are the key countries you cooperated with?
- What sort of cooperation was it?
In the period 2010-2011EURES Latvia cooperated with 18 countries and there were 45 different times of cooperation that happened with said countries. Key countries with which the co-operation took place were Finland, Estonia, Germany and Norway. Co-operation was mostly concerned with ensuring services to employers by organizing ninecandidate selection processes in cooperation with national employers and job placement agencies in the EURES member states (together with Finland, Denmark, France, Italy,Norway, Switzerland andGermany) and by participation in Recruitment days (in Finland, Poland and Cyprus) where employers were met and further cooperation ties were established. Important as well was providing services to jobseekers, job changers and the unemployed by organizing and participating in different Job days (together with Estonia,Lithuania, the United Kingdom, Norway, Netherlands, Finland, Germany and Sweden)and providing support for Latvians planning to return back to Latvia or having lost their jobs abroad (together with Ireland). Cooperation was used to improve the functioning of the network by attending and organizing different workshops and meetings (together with Spain, Hungary, Belgium, Germany), as well as training for EURES advisers (together with Italy) and by participating in Nordic –Baltic Labour mobility cooperation (together with Finland, Estonia and Sweden).
Furthermore, in the period 2011-2012, EURES Latvia co-operated with 15 other countries, but the amount of cooperation times grew by third, amounting at 58 times, which is 29% more than in the previous period. The key countries with who cooperation took place here wereLithuania, United Kingdom, Sweden and Poland. Co-operation mostly occurred with aim to provide services to jobseekers, job changers and the unemployed by organization and participating in Job Days and popularizing work opportunities in Latvia (together with Estonia, Ireland, Poland, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Norway, Netherlands, Finland, Germany, Denmark), organizing Seasonal Job days (together with the UK, Norway, Germany, Lithuania, Netherlands and Sweden), developing strategies how to help people who want to return to their home countries (together with Ireland, Poland, UK). Co-operationwas also used to ensure services for employers and was concerned with organizing candidate selection processes(together with United Kingdom, Finland, France and Germany). Functioning of the network was continued by organizing national EURES conference (together with Ireland and Norway), training of EURES advisers (together with Ireland, Portugal and Germany) and participating in working parties, workshops, and Mobility Conference (together with Poland, Denmark, Belgium, UK, Italy, Lithuania), not forgetting participation in Nordic –Baltic Labour mobility project (together with Denmark and Sweden)
In period2012-2013ERUES Latvia co-operated with 12 countries and the amount of co-operations was approximately 37 times. Many of previous successful co-operations were continued. Key countries for cooperation in this period were Belgium, Lithuania, Estonia and Sweden. Co-operation was important in different areas, for example, to ensure services for employers and was concerned with organizing candidate selection processes(together with United Kingdom, Germany, Finland and Estonia). Functioning of the network was continued by organizing national EURES conference (together with United Kingdom and Estonia). Training of EURES employees and different workshops and seminars were done in cooperation as well (together with Belgium, Italy, Cyprus and Ireland, and other countries as well) Also, cooperation was ensured by participating in Nordic –Baltic Labour mobility cooperation (together with Estonia and Sweden).
References:EURES Latvia, 2011. Annual report 2010-2011.
EURES Latvia, 2012. Annual report 2011-2012.
EURES Latvia, 2013. Annual report 2012-2013.
EM-A 1.1.4 EURES member action at national level:Provide total number of unfilled vacancies in PES database in January 2010-2011-2012-2013
2010.g. / 2011.g. / 2012.g. / 2013.g.
1594 / 2391 / 2430 / 3669
Reference:State employment agency, 2013. Changes in PES registered vacancies 2004.-2013. Available at
EM-A 1.1.5 EURES member action at national level:Provide total figures of unemployment at national level for the years 2010-2011-2012-2013
Please cite your sources of information.
Calendar Year / Unemployment rate at national level
2010 / 15.6% (176497)
2011 / 12.8% (144777)
2012 / 11.4% (117852)
2013 / 10.4% (102921)
Comments/observation:Numbers seen above have been calculated using monthly unemployment data to get the overall average of the each given year. All of year 2010 unemployment data have been demonstrated, whereas data about year 2013 are till June of said year, respecting the end of EURES planning period.
As it can be seen, unemployment levels have been steadily decreasing from their highpoint at March of year 2010 when unemployment level was 17.3% (194253). Most recent data, from June 2013 shows that unemployment level has fallen to 9.6% (94754). Moreover, in the National Economy development report by Ministry of Economics of Latvia, it has been predicted that unemployment will keep on decreasing in next few years and in year 2016 unemployment will reach 8% boundary and will keep declining.
References:Ministry of Economics, 2013. National Economy development report. Available at
State Employment Agency, 2010. Detailed statistics on the unemployment situation in Latvia and regions, December 2010. Available at:
State Employment Agency, 2013. Detailed statistics on the unemployment situation in Latvia and regions, June 2013. Available at:

EM-A 1.2 Geographic Mobility trends at border level (for Cross-border activities being part of EURES member Action (option 1)[2]:

EM-A 1.2.1 Cross-border activities:Define the cross-border area listing all involved cross-border regions on NUTS-III level and describe the mobility flows.Please describe the mobility patterns of workers concerned. Pleaseelaborate with reference to sectoral or skill-level or regional differences, etc. where appropriate. Please cite your source of information.
As the Latvia is EU’s border-country, there are only two neighbouring EU countries – Lithuania and Estonia, were any cross-border mobility flows that are significant for EURES can happen. It is not possible to recognize an active cross-border region or EURES partnership because of insufficient number of frontier workers. Nevertheless, Baltic SEA’s cooperate between themselves and EURES Latvia makes a point to regularly exchange information about situation in labour markets with their Baltic neighbours.
In regions that are further away from the capital city of Latviaunemployment levels are significantly higher. Furthermore, long-term unemployment is much more common as well. This has influenced workers in cross-border areas to obtain higher level of mobility and go in search of a job to the biggest cities in the area and if there is no language barrier, then such parameters as salary and social benefits are of a much bigger relevance than the country were the said city is. (Berzins, 2011) For example, there is a good working relationship between Latvia’s city Valka and Estonia’s city Valga – they call themselves twin cities and have created different ways of cooperation across the border. Cross-border mobility in is hindered by underdeveloped infrastructure, like bad roads and almost non-existent bus traffic between cross-border cities. (Valka municipality, 2011)
While in other countries it is more common for men to commute to their jobs, in Latvia there is no significant difference in genders of commuters. Furthermore, the average worker is usually quite young, educated and with higher qualifications – the less educated and older the person is, it is more likely that they will not be mobile in their job choice. (Berzins, 2011)
Henceforth, cross-border area is seen as a priority and political initiatives have been proposed and projects organized to help people who live there to find different means of survival. For example, it has been planned to invest more money in cross-border area with goal to make it more attractive for businesses that are able to create jobs. (Ministry of Economics, 2013)
References:Berzins, M., 2011. The role of geographical mobility in the processes of suburbanisation in Latvia. PhD.University of Latvia. Available at:
EURES Latvia, 2010. Partnership agreement 2010-2013.
Ministry of Economics, 2013. Action program “Growth and employment”. Available at:
Valkas municipality, 2011. Valkas Regional Development program. Available at:
EM-A 1.2.2 Cross-border activities: Define the mission and scope of the cross border activity and list the organisations involved, committed to the objectives of the cross border activity and how they contribute (proportionally) to (the financing of) the activity.
Main objective for EURES Latvia cross-border activities in period 2010-2013 was to improve cross-border mobility, to facilitate and strengthen cooperation with each country involved, to find better solutions for the adjustment of the skills of the available labour force and the needs of employers and to exchange actual information about the employment situation.
To achieve these goals in years2010-2011several activities in cooperation with Poland, Estonia and Lithuania were organized:
  • “Latvia-Poland cross-border cooperation and experience exchange” on employment market developments and trends in the Podlasie Voivodship inPoland and the Daugavpils region in Latvia;
  • Seminar/meeting which took place in Valka on Latvia-Estonia cross-border cooperation and further coordination of EURES activities between the two countries;
  • Seminar “Latvia-Lithuania cross-border cooperation and experience exchange” on the current developments in the Latvian and Lithuanian employment markets, especially in the Liepaja and Klaipeda regions, the measures being taken by the SEA of Latvia and Lithuanian Labour Exchange for solving employment market problems, future cross-border co-operation opportunities, and arrangements that have been planned within the framework of SEA and EURES;
  • An international conference in Lithuania, entitled “Lithuania-Latvia cross-border cooperation and experience exchange” was attended.
In the period 2011-2012 following activities were continued from year before: