Review Packet for World History II Midterm

Review Packet for World History II Midterm

Name: ______

Review Packet for World History II Midterm

DUE: Monday January 25th

100 points


1. Which of the 5 major religions are considered polytheistic?

  • Hinduism

2. The Vedas is a holy book of which religion?

  • Hinduism

3. Which religion is associated with the Torah?

  • Judaism

4. Which religion is associated with the Koran?

  • Islam

5. What is the Eightfold Path and which religion practices it?

  • Buddhism

6. The belief in one god is known as?

  • Monotheism

7. Name the prophet or founder of each of the following religions: Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Which religion doesn’t have a founder?

  • Buddhism- Siddhartha Gautama
  • Hinduism- No Founder
  • Judaism- Abraham
  • Christianity- Jesus
  • Islam- Muhammad

8. What is the country of origin of each of the five major religions?

  • Buddhism- India- taken to China by Asoka
  • Hinduism- India
  • Judaism- Middle East
  • Christianity- Middle East
  • Islam – Northern Africa/Middle East/Mecca and Medinah

9. What religion’s sects are Shia and Sunni Muslims?

  • Islam

10. A person who follows the Five Pillars is a follower of what religion?

  • Islam


11. Who best represented the humanist philosophy of the Renaissance and wrote The Praise of


  • Erasmus

12. Describe humanists.

  • A person who studies poetry, philosophy, history and about human behaviors

13. What does the word Renaissance mean?

  • Rebirth of art and learning

14. Where did the Renaissance begin?

  • Italy

15. The humanist movement studied what TWO ancient cultures?

  • Greece and Rome

16. What invention helped spread the ideas of the Renaissance and Reformation?

  • Printing Press

17. What artist is associated with David and the Sistine Chapel?

  • Michelangelo

18. Which artist is associated with the Mona Lisa?

  • Leo Da Vinci

19. What English Renaissance figure made several accomplishments in the field of literature, including many great sonnets, plays and essays?

  • Shakespeare

20. Invention of the modern, movable-type printing press is attributed to (who invented it?):

  • Guttenberg


21. Who declared himself the head of the English Church?

  • King Henry

22. What Queen made Anglicanism the official Church of England?

  • Queen Elizabeth

23. Who was the important Catholic Reformer who founded the Jesuit order?

  • Ignatius of Loyola

24. What was the main reason for Henry VIII's split with the Roman Catholic Church?

  • his desire for a male heir/divorce

25. Which of the following was a major reason for the Reformation?

  • European merchants resented paying taxes to the Church in Rome and corruption within the catholic church

26. The Thirty Years’ War began as a conflict between what two religions?

  • Protestants and Catholics

27. Martin Luther protested the practice of selling indulgences. What was that practice?

  • The clergy sold pardons that released people from performing penalties for their sins.

28. Describe Martin Luther’s beliefs.

  • Salvation by faith alone
  • Bible is the ultimate authority
  • All humans are equal before god

29. Describe John Calvin’s beliefs.

  • Predestination
  • Faith by living a righteous life
  • Strict work ethic

30. What were the 95 Theses?

  • 95 criticism about the catholic church written by Martin Luther


31. This empire created foreign enclaves to help better control trade. Although trade was allowed, the emperor was able to control all aspects of trade and foreign policy. This empire traded tea and porcelain. What empire was it?

  • China

32. Where is the Ottoman Empire located?

  • North Africa, Middle Eat- Around the Mediterranean Sea
  1. The Ottoman Empire is affiliated with what religion?
  • Islam

34. What modern-day city in Turkey became the capital of the Ottoman Empire?

  • Istanbul
  1. Two most important trade items for the Ottoman Empire are
  • Coffee and Ceramics
  1. Descendants of the Mongols, the Muslim Mughal (Mogul) rulers established an empire in the northern part of this country:
  • India
  1. Why was the Taj Mahal was built?
  • As a memorial for Shah Jahan’s wife
  1. Out of the following, which social class made up the lowest class in Japanese society: daimyos, shoguns, peasants, merchants? Use page ______in your book
  • Merchants- Important b/c in most other societies merchants were towards the top of the social class


39. Who captained the first European ship to sail around the tip of Africa and get to India?

  • Da Gama

40. What type of policy did Japan institute to control foreign ideas?

  • Isolationism

41. Where is the Songhai Empire located?

  • Northwest portion of Africa

42. What were Europeans' main motives for making voyages of exploration?

  • to grow wealthy and spread Christianity
  • 3 Gs

43. What were China's reasons for rejecting British offers of trade?

  • China believed it was self-sufficient and didn't need outside goods

44. How did Prince Henry of Portugal influence exploration?

  • He founded a navigational school on the coast of Portugal.

45. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Tordesillas signed by Portugal and Spain?

  • to decrease conflict over the claiming of new lands


  1. In the 15th century, Europeans began to setup trading posts in India in order to become involved in the trade of what good?
  • Spices
  1. The Indian textiles industry heavily influenced which European country?
  • Britain
  1. What European countries competed for the Indian Ocean trade by establishing coastal ports on the Indian subcontinent?
  • Britain, Portugal, The Netherlands (Dutch)
  1. What were the reasons for European expansion during the Age of Discovery?
  • Demand for gold and spices, wanting to spread of Christianity,Innovations in navigation
  1. Which explorer devastated the Aztec Empire?
  • Cortez
  1. Which explorer conquered the Inca Empire?
  • Pizzaro
  1. What were the reasons for European control of Africa?
  • A source of slaves to send to the Americas
  • a trading post for gold and other products
  • the establishment of port cities along the coast to enable European ships to re-supply
  1. What disease killed many Native Americans (Indians) when Europeans came to the Americas?
  • Small Pox
  1. What do we call the exchange of goods such as potatoes, corn, and tobacco between Europe and the Americas?
  • Columbian Exchange
  1. Describe the plantation systems used by European settlers in the New World. How did they affect the people, the economies, and the land?
  • Slaves were used for labor
  • plantations hurt the environment
  • plantations destroyed the indigenous (native) economies
  1. What was the major African export in triangular trade?
  • Slaves

57. Who led the first expedition to circumvent (sail all the way around) the world?

  • Magellan

58. What is the "middle passage"?

  • The middle leg of the trip for slaves coming to the Americas

59. What is Mercantilism?

  • idea that a nation’s power is related to its wealth
  • they export more than they import


  1. What is divine right? What did it justify?
  • Ruler or King was “selected” by god
  • Used to justify the rule of absolute monarchs
  1. What did Cardinal Richelieu help establish in France?
  • French Monarchy
  1. What did the Edict of Nantes do?
  • Freedom of Religion
  1. Who was the Sun King and why was he significant?
  • Louis XIV- absolute monarch of France
  1. What political purpose did the splendid palace at Versailles serve?
  • To show the power of Louis XIV and exemplify absolute monarchy

  1. What ruler wanted to westernize Russia?
  • Peter the Great
  1. What is the significance of the English Civil War, the Restoration and The Glorious Revolution? Be able to put them in chronological order.
  • The English Civil War – the Restoration – the Glorious Revolution
  • Restoration- restored the monarchy in England

Glorious Revolution- Bloodless revolution that brought William and Mary to power in England


  1. The heliocentric theory of the universe is credited to?
  • Copernicus
  1. Galileo was forced to recant (take back) many of his ideas by the?
  • Catholic Church
  1. What did Baron de Montesquieu believe about government power?
  • Was best divided among separate branches
  1. Thomas Jefferson based much of the Declaration of Independence on the ideas of what Enlightenment thinker?
  • John Locke
  • Civil Liberties- life, liberty and property ( pursuit of happiness)
  • If your government is unfair you have the right to overthrow it
  1. Thomas Hobbes argued that the best form of government was?
  • Absolute Monarch
  1. What is Isaac Newton known for explaining?
  • Gravity

73. How did the Scientific Revolution influence the American Revolution?

  • Questioning assumptions led to challenging ideas about government

74. In what places did Enlightenment ideas fuel or start revolutions?

  • America, France, Latin America

75. While novels became popular during The Enlightenment, who wrote Don Quixote, considered the first novel, in 1605?

  • Miguel Cervantes


76. Name the primary cause of the French Revolution in 1789.

  • Increasing dissatisfaction of the Third Estate

77. What group imposed the Reign of Terror?

  • the Committee of Public Safetyunder the authority of Robespierre

78. What was one of the biggest and most significant changes Napoleon made while he was Emperor?

  • Codification of Law
  • Napoleonic Code

79. What were the goals of the Congress of Vienna?

  • to establish a balance of power in Europe
  • Restore monarchies ( Act of Legitimacy)
  • New Political Philosophies
  • Conservative- want monarchs
  • Liberals- want democracy

80. Who was the most influential leader at the Congress of Vienna?

  • Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria

81. What was one important effect resulting from the political changes made at the Congress of


  • Nationalistic feelings grew in countries placed under foreign rule.

82. Who led a revolt of enslaved Africans in Saint Domingue?

  • Toussaint L’Ouverture

83. The independence movement in Latin America was spearheaded in large part by what social group? Who was Simon Bolivar?

  • the creoles
  • freed Venezuela


84. Who unified Northern Italy?

  • Count Cavour

85. Who unified Southern Italy?

  • Giuseppe Garibaldi

86. What were the last states to join a unified Italy?

  • Papal States

87. Who unified Germany?

  • Otto Van Bismarck

88. The leader of Germany unified the country by using this tactic, meaning he justified all

means to achieve and hold power. What do we call this tactic?

  • Realpolitik

89. What war created by a German leader to help spark nationalistic ideas in Southern

Germany, eventually helped to unify Germany?

  • Franco- Prussian War

90. What is Nationalism?

  • Wanting a united, independent country


  1. What was the Agricultural Revolution?
  • A time period where farming increased to support the growing population
  • Important Inventions: Seed Drill, Enclosures, Crop Rotation
  1. Describe the Enclosure Movement
  • A time period when land was fenced off
  • Caused many poorer people to move to the cities, b/c they could no longer afford land
  1. How did the Seed Drill help increase food production?
  • It made the planting of seeds faster and more efficient
  1. What is Industrialization?
  • A time period ( 1700-1900) when machine made goods increased
  • Started in Britain
  1. Where did it begin and why? 3 reasons
  • Britain
  • Britain had coal, water, iron-ore and a stable government
  1. What industry was first to become “industrialized?
  • Textiles
  1. What are textiles?
  • Goods made from cloth
  1. What did the following men invent and why were these inventions important?

James Watt- Steam Engine

Eli Whitney- Cotton Gin

Henry Bessemer- Process for making Steel

Edward Jenner- Small Pox Vaccine

Louis Pasteur- Studied Bacteria

  1. List 3 positive impacts industrialization had on the world…. List 3 negative impacts
  • Positives- more education, better transportation, more jobs, cheaper and faster products
  • Negatives- more pollution, bad working conditions, child labor, cramped cities
  1. What were working conditions like in factories?
  • Bad- long hours, little pay, dangerous conditions
  1. What impact did industrialization have on slavery?
  • Caused slavery to increase
  • Needed lots of cotton to support the textiles industry
  1. What are labor unions? Why did they start?
  • Organizations started to help workers get better wages and working conditions
  • They started because workers were being treated unfairly by their employers
  1. What is Collective Bargaining? Why is it used?
  • Negotiations ( talks) between the Unions and employers
  • It was used to try to get workers better conditions. It typically happened before a strike
  1. What is a strike?
  • Refusal to work typically until your demands are met by your boss
  1. What are Cottage Industries? What happened to them after Industrialization?
  • When products are made by hand. They were replaced with factories
  1. How were children treated during industrialization?
  • Badly- long hours, tough working conditions

Economic Systems

  1. What is Capitalism?
  • An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business to make a profit .
  1. Who was Adam Smith?
  • Wrote The Wealth of Nations
  1. What was the purpose of Adam Smith’s Wealth’s of Nations?
  • To defend the idea of free market
  1. What did capitalists want?
  • To make a profit
  1. What is communism? Why did it start? What’s the main goal?
  • An economic system in which all means of production- land, mines and factories are owned by the people, private property does not exist and all goods and services are shared equally .
  • Started b/ c poor people were angry it was so hard to move up in a capitalistic society
  • Share everything
  1. Who was Karl Marx? What did he write?
  • Wrote Communist Manifesto
  1. How did Capitalism and Communism differ?
  • Communism social classes do not exist
  • Capitalism has social classes
  1. What is socialism?
  • A less strict form of communism


  1. What is imperialism?
  • Stronger country taking over a weaker country in an attempt to control them politically, socially and economically
  1. Describe the Boxer Rebellion
  • Resistance movement against European Imperialists in China
  1. Describe the Sepoy Rebellion
  • Resistance movement against European Imperialists in India
  • Started b/c the British were coating bullets with pork or beef fat
  1. Why did Imperialism begin?
  • Europeans needed raw materials
  1. Why did European nations want Africa and Asia?
  • Easier to take over and had natural resources
  1. What impact did imperialism have on Africa and Asia
  • They lost their independence and will spend years trying to gain their freedom
  1. Map- locate the following places on a map; England, France, Spain, Russia, Ottoman Empire, China, Mughal Empire, Songhai Empire, Japan, Incan Empire, Mayan Empire, Aztec Empire , Germany, Italy, Portugal, India , Haiti, South America, Mexico

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