Review for IPS Final Exam


Review for IPS Final Exam

Name: ______Answer Key______

Review for IPS Final Exam

Chemistry Unit:

  1. What is matter?

Anything that has mass and takes up space. (Mass and volume)

  1. What are atoms? What do they make? What happens if you take them away?

The smallest particle of an element. They make up everything, if you take them away the object/matter does not exist.

  1. How do you find the atomic number and atomic mass of an element?

Atomic number is located on the periodic table and is a whole number usually on the top of the elemental box. It is the number of protons an element has. Atomic mass is the number with a decimal that tells us the mass of the atom.

  1. Where are protons, neutrons, and electrons located? What are the charges of protons, neutrons, and electrons?

Protons - nucleus – positive charge

Neutrons – nucleus – no charge

Electrons – orbitals/electron cloud – negative

  1. What are valance electrons? How many valance electrons does each element want? What is the role of valance electrons?

Valance electrons are the electrons located in the outermost shell. Each element wants its outer shell full so they need 8 electrons to fill it, except Hydrogen and Helium which need 2. Valance electrons are the electron’s that bond with other elements and give the element its chemical properties.

  1. What is polarity?

When a molecule has two oppositely charged poles (positive and negative charges)

  1. Give an example of a polar molecule.

Water – H2O

  1. Draw a molecule of water:
  1. What is special about carbon? What elements can it bond with?

It is contained in all living things. It can bond with many other elements. It has four valance electrons so 4 bonding sites.

  1. What is the difference between an element and a compound?

An element is the smallest piece of matter that cannot be further broken down. A compound is more than one element chemically combined.

  1. Draw the water cycle. Make sure you use the words evaporation, condensation, precipitation, ground water and runoff.

http www srh noaa gov jetstream atmos images hydro 5cycle jpg

  1. What happens to the density of water as it changes phases (Changes from liquid to ice)? How does this impact aquatic organisms?

Water gets less dense as it turns into ice. Ice will float on top of a lake allowing aquatic organisms to survive underneath the ice.

  1. Explain adhesive and cohesive properties of water.

Cohesion – water sticking to water (surface tension)

Adhesion – water sticking to other substances (sticking to the side of a cup)

Ecology/Biology Unit:

Define the following:

1. Biosphere – part of our planet that contains life

2. Population – organisms of the same species that share a habitat

3. Habitat – the area where an organism lives

4. Ecosystem – a community of interdependent organisms and their environment

5. Limiting Factor – a biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the growth of a population

6. Carrying capacity – the largest population that an ecosystem can support over time

7. Biome – a distinct region defined by climate, geography, and the ecological community

8. Competition – when two or more organisms are rivals for the same resource

9. Biodiversity – the number and variety of different species in a given area

10. Identify the distinguishing characteristics of each type of biome:

  1. Taiga – characterized by evergreen trees which do not lose their leaves. Temperatures range from 14-58 degrees F. Since the taiga is very cold, animals have thick fur coating to keep warm.
  2. Tundra – The Tundra is the coldest biome of all. Temperatures range from 14-53 degrees F, from -10-54 degrees F. Most of the animals that live in the tundra have fur or other protective covering to shield from the cold.
  3. Rainforest – The Rain forest is the most bio-diverse terrestrial biome on Earth. The thing that makes this biome unique is the amount of rainfall it has, 158 inches (about 4 meters) per year. Plants on the forest floor do not get much sunlight because of the dense vegetation above it, so these plants grow larger leaves to get more sunlight reaching it.
  4. Desert – The Desert Biome is the driest biome on Earth. This biome receives very little rain, less than 10 inches per year. Most of the desert animals avoid being out in the sun during the hottest part of the day. Many desert mammals, reptiles and amphibians live in burrows to escape the intense desert heat.
  5. Grassland – The temperate grassland is a vast land of grasses and scattered trees. Climate averages 32-86 degrees F. Precipitation is 10-30 inches per year. The grassland is very vast and open with very little cover; therefore, animals with predators dig burrows or make small nests.
  6. Savanna - The Savannah is vast grassland. It has warm to hot climates from 61-93 degrees F. It has dry and rainy seasons with precipitation of 59 inches of rain per year. The land is dominated by the large mammals such as giraffe, elephant, lions, and zebras. The savannah also has many scavengers which obtain energy from dead organisms.

11. What are the reactants (what goes in) and the products (what comes out) of photosynthesis? Draw the photosynthesis cycle including labels.

6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6O2

12. What are the reactants and products of cellular respiration? Draw the cellular respiration cycle including labels.

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP (energy)


13. How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related?

They are the opposite of each other. Photosynthesis’s reactants are cellular respiration’s product.

14. What is a food chain? Give an example?

The transfer of matter and energy from one organism to another.


15. What is a food web? Draw an example (Include labels and arrows showing where the energy is going)

An interrelated group of food chains in a community.


16. Define the following words and give an example of each:

  1. Producer – a photosynthetic organism that makes its own food.
  2. Primary consumer – An organism that feeds only on producers.
  3. Secondary Consumer – An organism that feeds on primary consumers.
  4. Apex predator – the top predator in an ecosystem.
  5. Herbivore – a consumer that eats plants.
  6. Carnivores – a consumer that eats meat.
  7. Omnivore – a consumer that eats both plants and animals.
  8. Predator – an animal that captures and eats other animals.
  9. Prey – an organism that is killed and eaten by a predator.
  10. Decomposer – an organism that obtains energy and food from decaying organic matter.

17. What do the words biotic and abiotic mean? Give examples of each from within an ecosystem.

Biotic – a living or once living part of the environment. Animals, Plants

Abiotic – a nonliving part of the environment. Water, Temperature

18. What is succession? Draw the cycle of succession and indicate the most stable stage.

The replacement of one type of ecological community with another. style

19. What is the difference between Primary and secondary succession?

Primary succession occurs where no life existed before and in areas where there is no soil yet, including lava flows, newly formed sand dunes, or on rocks. Secondary succession occurs in areas that have been disturbed by factors such as fires or floods, but already have soil – so secondary takes less time to occur.

20. Define and give an example of the following symbiotic relationships:

A. Mutualism – symbiotic relationship that benefits both organisms

B. Commensalism – symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other does not benefit, but is not harmed

C. Parasitism – symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed

21. What are the 4 R’s? Give an example of an activity that supports each R.

Reduce – Using less of something, decreases waste and pollution. Carpooling to work is an example.

Reuse – Using what you have over and over again rather than purchasing something new. An example is a mug that can be washed and used again rather than using Styrofoam cups for coffee.

Recycle – Using recycled products and recycling products will decrease waste and pollution. Recycling plastic and glass is an example.

Restore – Replacing what has been removed. Planting a tree if you cut one down and removing invasive species to allow native growth to continue are examples.

22. What is a renewable energy resource? Give an example.

A natural resource that can be replaced over time, for example wind and solar power

23. What is the main pollutant that causes global warming?

The emission of CO2 (carbon dioxide) caused by burning fossil fuels, is the main pollutant that causes global warming.