Regional Prioritized Curriculum Draft

Regional Prioritized Curriculum Draft

Science

Regional Prioritized Curriculum Draft

Grade 6

Physical Setting

Standard 4:Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.
Key Idea 1:The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.
Background:
The universe is comprised of a wide array of objects, many of which can be seen by the unaided eye. Others can only be observed with scientific instruments. These celestial phenomena, distinct from Earth, are in motion relative to Earth and each other. Measurements of these motions vary with the perspective of the observer. Cyclical changes on Earth are caused by interactions among object in the universe.
Guiding Questions:
How do cyclical events allow the solar system to function?
What makes the solar system a system?
Standard 4: Key Idea 1: Performance Indicator 1.1:Explain daily, monthly, and seasonal changes on Earth.

Essential Knowledge/Skills

(Major Understandings) / Classroom Ideas / Assessment Ideas /

Time/Notes

1.1a Earth’s Sun is an average-sized star. The Sun is more than a million times greater in volume than Earth.

1.1b Other stars are like the Sun but are so far away that they look like points of light. Distances between stars are vast compared to distances within our solar system.

1.1c The Sun and the plants that revolve around it are the major bodies in the solar system. Other members include comets, moons, and asteroids. Earth’s orbit is nearly circular.

1.1d Gravity is the force that keeps planets in orbit around the Sun and the Moon in orbit around the Earth.

1.1e Most objects in the solar system have a regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as a day, a year, phases of the Moon, eclipses, tides, meteor showers, and comets.

1.1f The latitude/longitude coordinate system and our system of time are based on celestial observations.

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  • Have student’s research and report on the objects in the solar system using a set of guided questions. Have students share results, comparing the characteristics of each of the objects.
  • Use information found to make a scale model of the solar system using 6 meters of adding machine tape. Have students develop a scale for distance and a scale for diameter. Use model for a discussion about the size of the solar system, and what would happen if you used the same scale for both measurements
  • Students develop their own demonstrations or presentations to explain the following concepts:
- Day/night
- Seasons
- Phases of the moon
- Eclipses
- Meteor showers and comets
  • Tie to ancient world beliefs of astronomy to understand time through celestial observations
  • Magic School Bus: “Lost in the Solar System” by Joanna Cole
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  • Teacher observations
  • Student responses
  • Journal entries
  • Student demonstrations
  • Lab reports/summaries
  • Teacher-developed and student-developed rubrics for performance tasks and projects
Ex. Assess demonstrations/presentations for understanding and relevancy of content.
Standard 4: Key Idea 1: Performance Indicator 1.1:Explain daily, monthly, and seasonal changes on Earth.

Essential Knowledge/Skills

(Major Understandings) / Classroom Ideas / Assessment Ideas /

Time/Notes

1.1g Moons are seen by reflected light. Our Moon orbits Earth, while Earth orbits the Sun. The Moon’s phases as observed from Earth are the result of seeing different portions of the lighted area of the Moon’s surface. The phases repeat in a cyclic pattern in about one month.

1.1h The apparent motions of the Sun, Moon, Planets, and stars across the sky can be explained by Earth’s rotation and revolution. Earth’s rotation causes the length of one day to be approximately 24 hours. This rotation also causes the Sun and Moon to appear to rise along the eastern horizon and to set along the western horizon. Earth’s revolution around the Sun defines the length of the year as 365 ¼ days.

1.1i The tilt of Earth’s axis of rotation and the revolution of Earth around the Sun cause seasons on Earth. The length of daylight varies depending on latitude and season.

1.1j The shape of Earth, the other planets, and stars is nearly spherical.

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  • Observe & record on chart (individual or whole group) the phase of the moon for several days/weeks. *A great kick off to unit!
  • Use students as models to demonstrate rotation and revolution. First have students show rotation & revolution individually and when “mastered” combine both.
  • Using a light source, globe and yarn-measure w/yarn, amount of “daylight” & “darkness.” Use the ratio to compare to number of hours in a day.
(measurements can be taken from reference points - Equator, Tropics of Capricorn & Cancer)
  • Given a location, have students predict amount of daylight and darkness in 3, 6, 9 months.
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  • Teacher observations
  • Student responses
  • Journal entries
  • Student demonstrations
  • Lab reports/summaries
  • Teacher-developed and student-developed rubrics for performance tasks and projects
Ex. Assess recordings of moon in journals and reasonableness of explanations for what they observed.
Standard 4:Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.
Key Idea 2:Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.
Background:
Students should develop an understanding of Earth as a set of closely coupled systems. The concept of systems provides a framework in which students can investigate three major interacting components: lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Processes act within and among the three components on a wide range of time scales to bring about continuous change in Earth’s crust, oceans, and atmosphere.
Guiding Questions:
How do the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere interact?
How have the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere changed over time?
How are rocks affected by changes in the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere?
Standard 4: Key Idea 2: Performance Indicator 2.1: Explain how the atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), and lithosphere (land) interact, evolve, and change.

Essential Knowledge/Skills

(Major Understandings) / Classroom Ideas / Assessment Ideas /

Time/Notes

2.1b As altitude increases, air pressure decreases.

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  • Teacher observations
  • Student responses
  • Journal entries
  • Student demonstrations
  • Lab reports/summaries
  • Teacher-developed and student-developed rubrics for performance tasks and projects
Ex. Assess explanations for prior knowledge of content.
Ex. Assess student responses in class discussions for understanding.
Ex. Evaluate journal responses for vocabulary used and reasonableness of explanations.
Ex. Assess water cycle illustrations for accuracy.
2.1c The rock at Earth’s surface forms a nearly continuous shell around Earth called the lithosphere.

2.1d The majority of the lithosphere is covered by a relatively thin layer of water called the hydrosphere.

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  • Divide the class into small groups, giving each a set of photographs of the features of the earth. Some should show land, some air, and some water (frozen and not). Instruct each group to sort/group the photographs. Discuss groupings and how the photographs represent the three parts of the earth. Students write explanations of how the pictures were grouped and how those groups relate to the area they live in.

2.1f Fossils are usually found in sedimentary rocks. Fossils can be used to study past climates and environments.
2.1g The dynamic processes that wear away Earth’s surface include weathering and erosion. /
  • Have students collect various soil samples from a variety of locations. Observe, compare, and contrast samples. Draw conclusions about sources of samples and why they look different. Demonstrate layers of soil.
  • Make soil profiles of various regions. Compare profiles and make inferences regarding the origin of the soil and possible uses.

2.1j Water circulates through the atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere in what is known as the water cycle. /
  • Provide a working model of the water cycle for students to observe (clear plastic container with lid placed in sun). In journals, students relate what happens in the demonstration to what happens in their own environment (Where could you see this? Why does this happen?). Use and stress the water cycle vocabulary.
  • Have students find, illustrate, and explain an actual example of the water cycle in action in environment.

Standard 4: Key Idea 2: Performance Indicator 2.1: Explain how the atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), and lithosphere (land) interact, evolve, and change.

Essential Knowledge/Skills

(Major Understandings) / Classroom Ideas / Assessment Ideas /

Time/Notes

2.1h The process of weathering breaks down rocks to form sediment. Soil consists of sediment, organic material, water, and air.

2.1i Erosion is the transport of sediment. Gravity is the driving force behind erosion. Gravity can act directly or through agents such as moving water, wind, and glaciers.

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  • Divide into three groups. Provide each group with a variety of samples of 1 type of rock (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic). Have each group observe and record the common characteristics of their rocks. Discuss and label each category and origin. Record final information on a graphic organizer.
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  • Teacher observations
  • Student responses
  • Journal entries
  • Student demonstrations
  • Lab reports/summaries
  • Teacher-developed and student-developed rubrics for performance tasks and projects

Standard 4: Key Idea 2: Performance Indicator 2.2:Describe volcano and earthquake patterns, the rock cycle, and weather and climate changes.

Essential Knowledge/Skills

(Major Understandings) / Classroom Ideas / Assessment Ideas /

Time/Notes

2.2b Analysis of earthquake wave data (vibrational disturbances) leads to the conclusion that there are layers within Earth. These layers-the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core have distinct properties.

2.2c Folded, titled, faulted, and displaced rock layers suggest past crustal movement.

2.2d Continents fitting together like puzzle parts and fossil correlations provided initial evidence that continents were once together.
2.2e The Theory of Plate Tectonics explains how the “solid” lithosphere consists of a series of plates that “float” on the partially molten section of the mantle. Convection cells within the mantle may be the driving force for the movement of the plates.
2.2f Plates may collide, move apart, or slide past one another. Most volcanic activity and mountain building occur at the boundaries of these plates. Often resulting in earthquakes.
2.2g Rocks are classified according to their method of formation. The three classes of rocks are sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. Most rocks show characteristics that give clues to their formation conditions.
2.2h The rock cycle model shows how types of rock or rock material may be transformed from one type of another rock to another. /
  • Use a peach (cross sectional view) to model layers of the earth.
  • Make colored clay models to represent layers. Manipulate continents to show how they once may have fit together.
  • Give students a set of rocks that includes samples of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. Have students separate into different groups and list characteristics. Debrief as a whole class and revise lists.
  • Plot volcano & earthquake sites on a map. Use findings to “speculate” why grouped in certain patterns (plate tectonics).
  • Using one sample, plot the process of change (building up destroying down):
Ex. Sand Sandstone /
  • Teacher observations
  • Student responses
  • Journal entries
  • Student demonstrations
  • Lab reports/summaries
  • Teacher-developed and student-developed rubrics for performance tasks and projects
Ex. Assess “speculations” for understanding.
Standard 4: Key Idea 2: Performance Indicator 2.2:Describe volcano and earthquake patterns, the rock cycle, and weather and climate changes.

Essential Knowledge/Skills

(Major Understandings) / Classroom Ideas / Assessment Ideas /

Time/Notes

2.2i Weather describes the conditions of the atmosphere at a given location for a short period of time.
2.2j Climate is the characteristic weather that prevails from season to season and year to year.
2.2k The uneven heating of Earth’s surface is the cause of weather.
2.2l Air masses form when air remains nearly stationary over a large section of Earth’s surface and takes on the conditions of temperature and humidity from that location. Weather conditions at a location are determined primarily by temperature, humidity, and pressure of air masses over that location.
2.2m Most local weather condition changes are caused by the movement of air masses.
2.2n The movement of air masses is determined by prevailing winds and upper air currents.
2.2o Fronts are boundaries between air masses. Precipitation is likely to occur at these boundaries.
2.2p High-pressure systems generally bring fair weather. Low-pressure systems usually bring cloudy, unstable conditions. The general movement of highs and lows is from west to east across the United States.
2.2q Hazardous weather conditions include thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, ice storms, and blizzards. Humans can prepare for and respond to these conditions if given sufficient warning.
2.2r Substances enter the atmosphere naturally and from human activity. Some of these substances include dust from volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor. These substances can affect weather, climate, and living things. /
  • Computer Program “Kids as Global Scientists”
  • Check out for information relevant to the sky and weather.
  • Students collect data, graph and report data, and use information to predict future weather events
  • Have students create weather instruments to collect information and to better understand how they work.
  • Interpret and read weather maps
  • Communicate with students around the world to compare weather data and make conclusions about climate and how it impacts people
  • Investigate weather phenomenon that has occurred locally or nationally, or in the world.
  • Publish articles about weather for school newspaper
  • Investigate how the substances that enter our atmosphere naturally and from human activity affect the ecosystem. (See Dimensions of Learning manual pp. 246-254 for information on “systems analysis”.)
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  • Teacher observations
  • Student responses
  • Journal entries
  • Student demonstrations
  • Lab reports/summaries
  • Teacher-developed and student-developed rubrics for performance tasks and projects
Ex. Assess reports using induction and deduction rubrics.
Ex. Assess weather reports for accuracy and appropriate use of terminology.
Ex. Use a systems analysis rubric to assess student’s understanding of the affects on our ecosystem.
Standard 4:Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.
Key Idea 3:Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.
Background:
Objects in the universe are composed of matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter is classified as a substance or a mixture of substances.
Knowledge of the structure of matter is essential to students’ understanding of the living and physical environments. Matter is composed of elements, which are made of small particles called atoms. All living and non-living material is composed of these elements.
Guiding Questions:
How is the knowledge of the structure of matter essential to understanding living and physical systems?
Standard 4: Key Idea 3: Performance Indicator 3.3:Develop mental models to explain common chemical reactions and changes in states of matter.

Essential Knowledge/Skills

(Major Understandings) / Classroom Ideas / Assessment Ideas /

Time/Notes

3.3a All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms are far too small to see with a light microscope.
3.3b Atoms and molecules are perpetually in motion. The greater the temperature, the greater the motion.
3.3e The atoms of any one element are different from the atoms of other elements. /
  • Have students create models of atoms including protons, neutrons, electrons & nucleus using materials and objects commonly found around the home.
  • Review states of matter. Show water, ice and steam. Have students discuss in pairs what they think is happening to the atoms and molecules. Use students to represent atoms & molecules. Have them “act out” being in a solid, liquid & gas.
  • Assign students to be a proton, neutron and electron. Have each make up a “biography” of their particle in a certain element and then write a story about how they function in the atom.
  • Write paragraphs explaining which state of matter students would prefer to be in and explain why.
  • Show periodic table – explain symbol representation. Give common compounds and have students guess what they are. (ex. NACL= table salt)
  • Have students create pictorials or graphics to help them remember the different compounds on the periodic table. (See Dimensions of Learning manual pp. 74-82 for strategies on helping students store information.)
  • Working in small groups, have students devise a new system to organize the elements so that people understand that each element is unique.
  • Develop a scavenger hunt around school to find common elements in school.
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  • Teacher observations
  • Student responses
  • Journal entries
  • Student demonstrations
  • Lab reports/summaries
  • Teacher-developed and student-developed rubrics for performance tasks and projects
Ex. Observe students’ demonstrations of the states of matter for understanding.
Ex. Assess “biographies” for understanding and accuracy in describing their particle’s functions.
Ex. Using a student/teacher created rubric evaluate their new systems for clarity, accuracy, and creativeness.
Standard 4:Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.
Key Idea 4:4Observe and describe the properties of sound, light, magnetism, and electricity.
Background:
An underlying principle of all energy use is the Law of Conservation of Energy. Simply stated, energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Energy can be transformed, one form to another. These transformations produce heat energy. Heat is a calculated value, which includes the temperature of the material, the mass of the material, and the type of the material. It should be noted that temperature is not a measurement of heat.
Guiding Questions:
How is electrical energy produced and transformed?
What are the effects of the production of electricity and its transformation?
Standard 4: Key Idea 4: Performance Indicator 4.4:Observe and describe the properties of sound, light, magnetism, and electricity.

Essential Knowledge/Skills