Laura Kusumoto, Vice President; David Shorrock, Business Development
The Integration of Physiology Models with Avatars to Expand the Opportunities for High-Fidelity Medical Training
Laura Kusumoto, Vice President; David Shorrock, Business Development
Forterra Systems, Inc
Wm Leroy Heinrichs, MD; Parvati Dev, PhD; Patricia Youngblood, PhD
StanfordUniversity Medical Media and Information Technologies (SUMMIT)
Abstract. Game technology incorporated into today's training and educational environments promise positive training effectiveness in curricula focusing on situational awareness, decision-making, and team coordination; for example, in a mass casualty incident. This paper describes a current program to merge medical and gaming technologies so that computer generated, but human-controlled avatars will exhibit realistic life signs. The program is identifying the instructional challenges and system engineering issues associated with the incorporation of multiple physiological models into the computer generated synthetic representation of patients. The work is a collaboration between Forterra Systems and the SUMMIT group of StanfordUniversityMedicalSchool, sponsored by the US Army (TATRC). Medical simulation has yet to embrace the modern commercial airline industry concept of using extremely high fidelity part task trainers for teaching complex procedures, which can now execute physiological math models that are analogous to algorithms used in a modern full-flight simulator. Based on this research and the contemporary airline industry experience with simulation, a new medium could emerge that offers the instructional system designer more powerful and cost-effective solutions for a future medical training curriculum.
Combining medical simulation with game technology focused on simulating human interaction creates opportunities for building medical training applications focused on awareness, decision-making, and team coordination. In research sponsored by the US Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technologies Research Center (TATRC) in 2005, Forterra Systemsand Stanford University Medical Media and Information Technologies (SUMMIT)collaborated to develop a prototype virtual environment, based on game technology, in which teams of first responders could practice their responses to mass-casualty incidents. The prototype was designed to support a specific curriculum, in this case, handling triage both on the scene of a mass casualty incident and at the hospital where the casualties are taken for treatment. In formative evaluations of this method of learning, a majority of physicians and nurses who participated rated it “as effective or more effective” than the live training drills that are conducted at their hospital for practicing mass casualty responses.
With continued sponsorship from TATRC, in 2006 the collaborators began a second phase of this research, to expand the curriculum and encompass more of the in-hospital response to a disaster, and to delve into some of technology challenges encountered in the first phase.These challenges include addressing the tradeoffs between the level of perceived realism in a virtual environment and the cost of realism in computation and time to develop the environment. For the simulation of a mass casualty incident to seem realistic to medical professionals, it must include many victims as well as hospital personnel, police, media, the “worried well” and others that would rush to the hospital. The victims must look and act sick or injured, and they must respond to the care given at the hospital, or suffer the consequences of care not received in time.
An effective response to a dirty bomb or to a crisis in the operating room are similar to the effective response to an emergency in an airline cockpit, in that all demand:
- Situational awareness on the part of the responders
- Leadership, coordination, and communications
- Proficiency gained from practice and rehearsal.
The second half of this paper discusses the implications for medical training of the availability of a simulation that combines realistic complexity, team training capability, and high-fidelity medical models.
Figure 1:A Scene from Mass Casualty Practice
2.MMOG GAME TECHNOLOGY
The technology used to develop the virtual environment for this research, Forterra Systems’ Online Interactive Virtual Environment (OLIVE) platform, was selected for its ability to portray large numbers of people as “avatars” who appear to be together in a simulated environment, even though the participants may be logged in from computers anywhere in the world. OLIVE avatars are computer generated, but human-controlled, characters that move and act in the simulated world in much like people do in the real world. They are controlled by people using their mouse and keyboards, and given voices by people speaking into the microphones on their PC headsets. When participants in OLIVE-based training are logged in as avatars, they can interact with other people in a way that is both immersive and engaging. The natural communicationsbetween people that emerge in the OLIVE environment are at the core of this technology’s ability to support team training.
Figure 2:Paramedics Coordinate Their Response
When training with OLIVE, as with a live drill, the people who are not being trained would be acted out by role-players. The roles they would fill include victims of the incident arriving by ambulance and on their own, the paramedics who would accompany them, the families and friends of the victims, the “worried well” who feel they may have been hurt, the doctors and nurses from multiple shifts and departments who offer their help, hospital administrative staff and security, and others in the surrounding community such as the police and the media.
OLIVE is a massively multiplayer online game (MMOG) platform that can support thousands of participants logged into an environment simultaneously, so it can theoretically can be used to portray the large numbers of people who would rush to the emergency department of a hospital in the case of a disaster. In practice, however, there are practical challenges to portraying the “mass” of people in a mass casualty.
Participants in the first-phase study pointed out technology enhancements that would support more realistic scenarios. Two of the significant challenges they identified also were named by the subject matter experts and instructional designers:
- Increasing the population of avatars in the scenarios
- Increasing the medical fidelity of the avatars and interactions with them
3.1.1Representing the “Mass” in Mass Casualty
An important aspect of the reality of a mass casualty incident is the sheer numbers of people it could involve. Even with more than 20 avatars in each scenario, some of the participants in the Phase I study commented that the environment seemed too quiet and sparse. For the experience to feel realistic, it needs more people, noise, and activity.
Figure 3:Avatars Waiting for Care
To address the practical problem of hiring role-players to fill hundreds or thousands of roles, the computer game notion of non-player characters (NPCs) could be introduced to replace human beings in roles that do not require realistic voice interaction with the trainees. NPCs are automated characters that look like avatars but do not require human operation.
The OLIVE platform currently provides an interface to the US Army’s program for controlling NPCs (as well as other types of entities, such as vehicles) in a simulation, namely OneSAF. OneSAF provides a visual user interface for controlling NPCs that can rapidly be adapted, even during the performance of a training scenario. In a research program with the US Army Research, Engineering, and Development Command (RDECOM) , Forterra has successfully employed SAF entities to populate Army training scenarios in OLIVE. This is one approach that may be employed to add more realism to the mass casualty scenarios. Another approach would be the use of commercial AI packages that provide crowd behavior modeling.
3.1.2The Case for Medical Fidelity
The other significant area for improvement identified by participants in the Phase I study was that they wanted the patient avatars look and react as though they are sick or injured. OLIVE’s avatars in 2005 could be healthy, injured (with a grimace and a limp), or dead, but there were no intermediate states.Although the prototype software provided a readout of patients’ vital signs, some physicians and nurses in the study felt that performing triage on a healthy-looking patient who has very poor vital signs simply was beyond belief.
Perhaps more importantly, to extend the training beyond triage and into the treatment phases of a disasterresponse, it is necessary to provide a way for the trainees to treat the patients.Although the trainees may already know how to treat patients as part of normal emergency department operations, dealing with a mass casualty disaster requires handling more patients simultaneously, placing an emphasis on good teamwork and resource management. If team members do not perform their roles appropriately or communicate well, or if they do not successfully manage critical resources such as drugs and hospital beds, their patients will suffer. Without the ability to represent the consequences of their actions in a realistic fashion, the technology would be limited in its ability to support learning from medical mistakes as well as triumphs.
Figure 4:Transporting Patients in the Virtual Hospital
The requirements integration with physiology models are based on what the physicians and nurses need to do in the scenarios, namely diagnose and treat patients.
Diagnosis of the avatar patients will be draw upon the same sort of data that medical professionals would rely upon in real-life. In simulated patients, however, the representation of these cues must be adapted to the technology. The following options are available:
- Visualization on the 3D avatar. Symptoms such as pallor, broken bones, and bleeding can be shown as colors and textures on the avatar and its clothing.
- Textbook-style pictures. For details that are too fine to be represented by the avatar, pictures may be presented (for example, the condition of the throat with the mouth open).
- Text messages may be used in placed of textbook pictures if the latter are difficult to produce or interpret.
- Patient history that can be collected by talking with the patient (who is a human role-player), if conscious, or reading the information collected on triage tags and other documentation at the hospital.
- Human role-players can also express emotions react to pain (crying, screaming) in their interactions with medical staff.
Additionally, the patients can be connected to virtual monitors and physicians may ask for diagnostic tests to run. Monitors will provide waveform readouts for parameters such as heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure. Specific diagnostic instruments will be available in the emergency room, including a portable X-ray machine.
As with the diagnostic tools, the treatments available in the virtual emergency department will be designed to support specific scenarios. In this case, the treatments will include injection of drugs, transfusion of blood, application of bandages, splints and tourniquets.
The role of the physiology models, then, will be to inform the visualization or display of symptoms for diagnosis, and to reflect the consequences of treatment, or lack thereof.
3.3THE WAY FORWARD
We have described a research and development program that will provide the foundation for a new set of validated instructional capabilities that can be applied to first responders in a clinical hospital environment.
The analogy of medical simulation to aviation has been well documented over the last 20 years, with a body of work, mainly based on the USmilitary experience, that recommends the adoption of similar technology. Although flight safety is critical for both, commercial aviation and military aviation have different motivations that impact their training doctrines.
There is a more instructive correlation between the dynamics of the health care industry and commercial aviation, and it is through this comparison that we might see a new impetus from the contribution of the technology described in this paper.
In their definitive work entitled Culture at Work in Aviation and Medicine, Robert L Helmreich and Ashleigh C. Merritt have documented errors observed in a teaching hospital operating room (OR) in Switzerland. These events are depicted below. We have added an airline cockpit analogy to illustrate the close correlation between the two environments.
Table 1: Parallels Between Operating Room Team and Cockpit CrewErrors / Teamwork
OPERATING ROOM / COCKPIT / OPERATING ROOM / COCKPIT
Surgeon fails to inform anesthesiologist before administering drug with effect on blood pressure / Captain shuts down one engine without warning. / Failure to brief own and other teams of plans for operation / No pre-flight briefing
Failure to complete checklist for anesthesia machine / Failure to complete check list for cabin air conditioning / Failure to speak up to inform team of work overload or patient problems / Flight Attendant did not report unruly passenger
Failure to react to blood oxygen alarms / Failure to see low fuel light / Failure to discuss alternatives and to advocate a course of action / Captain did not consult F/O on a diversion plan
Failure to monitor patient status / Failure to monitor aircraft configuration / Failure to establish leadership / Captain did not mange the emergency
Resident reading manual fails to note patient emerging from anesthesia / First Officer fails to see decompression warning in cabin / Conflicts over course of action / First Officer did not agree with missed approach decision
Consultant distracted from decision on patient problem in another OR / Converging traffic warning / Failure to debrief actions during operation / Captain did not explain decision to go to another airport
3.4AVIATION TRAINING TODAY
Contemporary US commercial aviation training has its roots in the late ‘70s, when the Federal Aviation Administration was given the challenge to initiate action to improve flight safety. Through a collaborative process with airlines, government agencies, human factors specialists and the training and simulation industry, (notably early pioneers such as United Airlines, Braniff International, Rediffusion Simulation and CAE), they put in place a set of regulations and recommendations for the training and checking of aircrew. Through the extensive use of simulation, training and operating costs have been reduced, lives have been saved and passenger safety has increased.
One of the key components of the training strategy was to “train as you fly”. Conceptually, this was achieved by constructing operational scenarios requiring a crew to fly a typical 4-hour aircrew task. Christened LOFT, or “line-oriented flight training”, the objective was to observe individual proficiencies and crew performance in a task-loaded environment and expose them to many of the normal and emergency situations and decisions that face an airline crew every day.
Instructor interventions occurred, mostly to introduce emergencies. Critical to these sessions is the ability to review performance, after the event, in a non-retribution environment.
With this total crew training requirement and available technology, the first notions of CRM, or Cockpit Resource Management were born. Early adopters were United Airlines and Northwest in the US. Today, “5th generation” CRM places emphasis on error management and avoidance, in contrast to the early goals of cockpit cultural issues. However, this segment of the training curriculum demanded the most expensive component of the training center, the $10m full flight simulator, with its operating costs of up to $800 per hour. In addition, it did not allow the expansion of CRM to include the cabin crew or ground crew, who also make a significant contribution to airline safety
More recently, the airline Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) is a voluntary alternative to the traditional regulatory requirements under CFR 14, Parts 121 and 135 for pilot training and checking. Under the AQP, the FAA is authorized to approve significant departures from traditional requirements, subject to justification of an equivalent or better level of safety. The program entails a systematic front-end analysis of training requirements from which explicit proficiency objectives for all facets of pilot training are derived. The Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) is a voluntary alternative to the traditional regulatory requirements under CFR 14, Parts 121 and 135 for pilot training and checking. Under the AQP the FAA is authorized to approve significant departures from traditional requirements, subject to justification of an equivalent or better level of safety. The program entails a systematic front-end analysis of training requirements from which explicit proficiency objectives for all facets of pilot training are derived.
This was an important initiative for many reasons:
- It re-validated the contribution of human factors analysis to curriculum design, and more importantly, using the right device for the right training or checking objectives
- It allowed the training initiative to be taken by the airline, not the government.
- Most of the principles of AQP and the Total Simulation Plan have been adopted by the world’s airlines and in some cases, emulated in segments of military training.
- It came at a time when lower cost PC technology could host the same fidelity of simulation as that which was running in the full flight simulator.
- AQP became an engine to drive very sophisticated part-task trainers, integrated with a new curriculum. This “off-loaded” that $10M simulator, making the full flight simulator a more cost-effective training tool for the more appropriate tasks, such as those involving aircraft handling and the more psycho-motor, skill-based tasks.
- High fidelity part-task trainers are now an important part of the curriculum, and have the ability to re-use software for web-based implementations that can deliver valid training to the aircrew at home, or at a remote operating base.
The need for cognitive skills training in medicine and aviation has always been there, but cost-effective training tools for multiple crew positions in a team concept, is a new capability.
3.5IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS
Game technology is a disruptive force in the traditional training and simulation community. It offers compelling scenarios, a low cost distributed implementation and complete immersion by the participants. Web-based, multiplayer simulation solutions, such as those hosted on the Forterra OLIVE platform, are focused on the cognitive skills needed to work effectively in a team through collaboration, exploration and problem solving. From an education and training perspective the medium offers operational features and instructional capabilities including: