Later Middle Ages

Later Middle Ages

Later Middle Ages

Medieval Life

idea and role of universal Church

feudal and monastic institutions

town life and guilds


Gothic architecture

style: hierarchy, other-worldliness, focus on God, sense of stasis


dynastic conflict--changing idea of kingship (v. Vatican)

Golden Bull (1356)--Pope blocked out of HRE choice

Hundred Years' War (1337-1452)--Eng. claim on Fr. throne

style of warfare

impact on knighthood

War of the Roses (1455-85)

divided Church

Babylonian captivity (1309-77)

Great Schism (1378-1415)

Jan Hus--burned at stake in 1415

conciliar movement


William of Ockham--govt. secular, criticize Aristotle/reason

John Wycliffe--future Reformation challenges

Black Death/famine

began in 1346

killed 33-50% of Europe's population

psychological and demographic impact

social life


Ciompi Revolt (1378)

A New Spirit

more focus on individual

more focus on here-and-now

vernacular literature--realism, national setting

less faith in instit. Church, more mysticism

Result: Strain on existing institutions, ripe for social/intellectual change

The Renaissance

Rebirth of classical past

a strong contrast with the Middle Ages?


style: secularism, virtu, humanism, civic virtue


new focus on this world after 14th century

wealth/indep. of Italian city-states (location)

new ideas/text--from Byzantine Empire (falling to Ottomans)

urban life--culture

Renaissance Society

25% in towns, 10% elsewhere (econ. center, surr. countryside)

cities ruled by wealthy elites--bankers, merchants, etc. (Medici, Sforza)

luxury goods

stronger sense of community/cohesion (b/c of relative prosperity)

family--patriarchal, extended (w/servants), women gain only in educ.


humanists--liberal arts (grammar, rhetoric, history, moral phil.)

Petrarch--"the father of humanism"



Bruni--Florentine Academy

Machiavelli--circumstances of his writing

The Prince (1513)

civic virtue (condotierre)


style and subjects--linear, perspective, symmetry, shading, individuals

architecture--Brunulleschi (dome), Alberti


Massaccio (Expulsion of Adam and Eve)

Botticelli (Spring, Venus)

da Vinci/Michelangelo (Renaissance Men)

role of Church--caveat to secularism


contests for local supremacy--Milan, Florence, Venice, Naples, Papal States

stability through seigneurs, local elites (Council of Ten), Medici

Peace of Lodi (1454)

Venice--Great Council, strongest through navy/trade

fall of Italian states--rise of Ottomans (affects trade), voyages of exploration, in middle of dynastic rivalries

Wars of Italy (1494-1529)

sack of Rome (1527)

result: Renaissance spreads but conditions no longer favor Italy, center of Europe shifts to North and West (Spain, G.B., Low Countries)

European Exploration and Empire/New Monarchs

impact: changed balance of power and intellectual universe

Motives--God, gold, and glory

spices of Asia

technological innovations, $ from banking

Renaissance mentality


Prince Henry the Navigator

Portugal--spices and slaves (short-lived empire)

Columbus sails for newly-united Spain

Balboa, Magellan

conquistadores--Cortes, Pizarro (types of individuals)

type of control/impact on indigenous peoples/disease

Impact--reassess views of themselves

Europe in 1500 (diversity of forms/states in need of unity)

East--loose Scand., Mongol/Ottomans, Russia, Poland-Lithuania


West--Spain (reconquista), G.B., France

New Monarchs

difficulties--strong nobles, cult./reg'l diversity, transport, dynastic conflicts, other powers (Church, etc.)

changes in warfare

Russia--gained at expense of Mongols

Ivan III--rewards for boyars/army, Orthodox Church

Ivan IV--punished/moved boyars, loyalty of army, peasants to serfs

Poland declines--weak central ruler


War of Roses depletes nobles

Henry VIII-royal domains (taxes), depts. of state, coerce/kill nobles

Privy Council and Parliament increased (Reformation)


indep. arist. and provincialism

Louis XI--marriages, alliances, consumption taxes, nat'l army


regional diversity (Aragon/Castile)


Charles V--bureau. courts (often absent)

Dynastic Struggles

military technology and continuing chivalry

personal rivalries (Henry VIII, Francis I, Charles V)

Valois v. Habsburg (often in Italy)--vie for HRE title

Pavia (1525), Francis captured, turns tables w/Henry/Suleiman

Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

overall trend: growing power of state, aided by econ. advances

The Reformation

Importance: challenged the powerful institutional role of Catholic Church, divided Europe religiously, more individualism, and led to political conflict

The Causes--(influenced by political develop./econ. motives)

intellectual ferment--printing press (1518-25--1/3 of books by Luther)

Christian humanism--spirit of reform through education, new Bibles

NOTE: diff. w/Italian humanism

Sir Thomas More (later beheaded)--Utopia

Erasmus--satirized Church abuses, called for more indiv. belief

Cisneros--Polyglot Bible--"saved" Spain from Reformation

abuses of Church--nepotism, simony, pluralism, indulgences

Renaissance popes (Julius II, Alex. VI)

Fred. III "the Wise" and Johann Tetzel

Lutheran Reformation

95 Theses--for discussion, individual salvation

sola fide, sola scriptura, sola gratia

equality of all believers, challenge power of Pope/councils

Diet of Worms (1521)

Address to Christian Nobility (1520)--appeal to German nationalism

Charles V's problems

converts from elites (resentment of Rome)

anticlericalism among burghers

converts--often for national/economic reasons

social and political conservatism

where: Germany, Scandinavia

Other Protestant reformers

Zwingli (Swiss)--city/Church united, radically v. ritual/material

Calvinism--Institutes of Christ. Relig. (1536)--predest., indep. congreg.

where: Low Countries, Britain, France

English Reformation

Act of Supremacy (1534)

Edward VI (reforms, comp. w/ Cath), Mary (repression), Eliz. I

Anabaptists--radicals, denied secular authority, only true believers

where: Germany, Bohemia, Hungary

Catholic Reformation

summary: reform abuses, renewed spirituality, emphasize again doctrines, fight back against Prot.

New Piety--indiv. spirituality, Teresa of Avila (Carmelites)

Loyola and the Jesuits (missionaries)

Council of Trent (1545-63)--dominated by Pope's Ital. (refused comp. w/HRE)

abolished indulgence abuses

reaffirm special mark of clergy

update liturgy

scriptural and apostolic tradition

index and Inquisition

where: France, Italy, Ireland, E. Europe (Poland, Hungary, Austria)

Beginning of Warfare

Charles V--trying to reunite empire v. Ottoman, France, German Prots.

1555--Peace of Augsburg

Religious Warfare

main focus: development of secular authority of state, division of Europe into distinct nation-states (Treaty of Westphalia--1648)


new technology, admin., organization

depth of hatred--fear of neighbors, "pollution"

French Wars of Religion

Calvinist inroads (10% by 1560--esp. among well-to-do)

Henry II death (1559)

Catherine de Medici--regent

dynastic instability

Guises v. Bourbons

Charles X sister to marry Henry of Navarre (Prot)

St. Bartholomew Day's Massacre

politiques and Catholic League

War of Three Henrys (1588-89 Guise and Henry III assass.)

settlement--Henry IV to Cath., Edict of Nantes (1598)

Spain's War with Netherlands

Philip II--leader of European Cath.

war v. Ottomans (Lepanto--1571)

Spanish Armada

Burgundian inheritance

social/econ. situation of provinces

force Cath.----passive resistance (William of Orange)



Duke of Alba (Council of Blood)

taxes high, repression--more opp. even among Cath.


Pacification of Ghent (1576)--cede auth. to States-General

Twelve Years' Truce (1609)--ack. indep. of United Provinces

Eastern Europe

Poland-Lithuania--instability and powerful nobility

war w/ Russia going thru Time of Troubles

Sweden--rise of int'l Prot. power

effort to control Baltic trade

Thirty Years War--type of war, impact on Germany, not just Cath. v. Prot.

Bohemian revolt--effort to get Ferd. II as Emperor

Defenstration of Prague (1618)

White Mountain (1620)--defeat Fred. V and get Bohemia Cath.

fear of Catholic Habsburgs--G.B., Holland, Germans, Denmark join

Swedish intervene w/effort to convert Lutherans

Magdeburg sacking (1631)--unite Protestant behing Gust. Adolph.

died at Lutzen

Spain v. France

Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

reaffirm Augsburg--HRE just a name

Dutch independent

state system

16th Century Social History

theme: hierarchy, econ./demographic changes affect these

Economy--expansion of agriculture, increase in pop., Price Revolution


90% of pop.

subsistence farming--often famines, instability

three-crop rotation

peasants leased land, owned by lord/seigneur, common land

robot, corvee


guilds--structure of work

focus on food

merchants, artisans

most unskilled

domestic service


80 to 105 M in pop.

at first---prod., urban, consumption up

then strain

Price Revolution

wages not keeping up (guilds more strict)

landless laborers among wealthy peasants

result: subsistence crisis, social stratification

Social Life--focus on hierarchy, though econ. challenged

Great Chain of Being, Body Politic

nobles (about 2-3%)--tax exempt., pol. office, army

bourg., skilled (about 10%)--challenged above

townspeople/peasants--guilds, land, citizenship to figure status

Social Change

bourg./prof. enter office, buy status

poverty taxes local charities

Peasant Revolts

literate leaders

protest gaming rights/enclosures

"Twelve Articles of Swabian Peasants" (1525)--Luther condemned

Private Life--family and community provide continuity



marriage age


women control domestic scene, men public


lord, priest give continuity

social customs, festivals--saints, "world turned upside down"

popular beliefs


witchcraft--social change, Reformation, superstition, lack of science

The Royal State

reason: to provide security/order, promote interests of state, needs of warfare

NOTE: compare French and British evolution of absolute monarchy

Divine Right--Bishop Bousset/Jean Bodin, organic view, "one king, faith, law"

Efforts at Centralization

Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIII

Spain--Count-Duke Olivares and Philip IV but failed

econ. weak--taxes, inflation, emigration

focus on relig. zeal--upper class crusaders/priests

disunity (Moors, Moriscos, conversos)--persecution


Stuarts--diff. in taxing

methods: courts, intendants, taxes, selling offices,


Causes--taxes, pop. pressures, war, bad harvests, state regulation

right to resist

Hugeunot thinkers--right to resist civil auth. if unjust



James I (1603-25)--financial diff.

Puritan demands--get rid of Cath, epispocacy

Charles I (1625-49)

new prayer book in Scotland (1637)

ship money

Bishop Laud

Long Parliament (no funds to fight invading Scots)

Civil War (1642-49)

military forces more radical take over

try king and execute in 1649


Rump Parliament and Council of State

Stuart Restoration--toleration, Parl. role

Glorious Revolution (1688)

Locke (Second Treatise) and Hobbes (Leviathan)

Eastern Europe


Fred. Will--Great Elector (1640-88)

excise taxes, armies, bureau--united scattered states

focus is army

Peter I/Russia

the man

western tour/ideas

conscription, factories, St. Petersburg

expansion (v. Poles, Swedes)

Louis XIV (1661-1715)--Versailles (the symbol)

Colbert as finance minister

Louvois--army of 400,000

intendents, bureau.

failures--persecution of Hug. (revoke Nantes), war

Culture--Baroque (ornate, elegant, structured, grand)

Scientific and Commercial Revolutions

theme: challenge religion, augment state power, Europe controlling world

New Science

Aristotle's view

Copernicus (1473-1543)--heliocentric

Brahe (1546-1601)--data to prove

Kepler (1571-1630)--laws of planetary motion

Galileo (1564-1642)--observation, gravity, recantation

Scientific Method

empirical, reason, inductive, deductive

Descartes--mind and matter, Christian skeptic, deductive, math

Robert Boyle--atomic theory

William Harvey--dissection, circulation


Newton (1642-1727)--laws of motion, mechanics, calculus

Francis Bacon--empirical

scientific societies--Royal Academy of London



Constit. state

econ. wealth--flyboats, location, tolerance

Bank of Amsterdam

banks--role in exchange and provide capital (Bank of England--1694)

technology, practices--bills of exchange, acct., joint-stock

merchants and profit

triangular trade


spice trade (Dutch East Indies)

India--Great Britain (calicoes, spices, tea)


change in diet

luxuries and art (Rembrandt, etc.)


the theory--zero-sum, gold, colonies



regulation (Navigation Acts)

monopolies (Dutch East India, British East India, etc.)


Britain-Dutch naval wars

over Cromwell's Navigation Act

1652-54, 1665-67 (take N.Y.--anyone want it back?), 1672-74

France gangs up (open dikes)--Treaty of Nijmegen

Louis XIV

balance of power

desire for Burgundian lands

Nine Years War--seize Cologne

Grand Alliance--GB, Dutch, Germans

Treaty of Ryswick

Spanish Succession (1701-14)

v. Leopold I of Austria

Utrecht (1714)--Sp. terr. in Italy/Neth to Aust.

France loses gains, G.B. advances in North Amer.

Seven Years War (1756-63)--G.B. gains N. Amer.

New European Powers and War

Motif: War, War, War, and power of state to maintain security

powers on way up: G.B., Prussia, Russia

powers on way down: Spain, Dutch, Poland

holding own: France, Austria

Russia (Westernization)

Peter the Great

census/poll tax

Table of Ranks (1722)--based on merit

colleges of military science/liberal arts

advances in industry, peasantry still poor

Rural Life

95% of people

high taxes

military service

enserfment under Catherine

Catherine--German who killed husband

boyars accept tsar power for exemption of state service

Charter of Nobility (1785) outlines above

District Councils--local government

Pugachev Rebellion

Prussia (Hohenzollerns)

Fred. Will I

replace mercenaries, train German officers

all males register for conscription

reform state bureaucracy

Fred. the Great

enlightened monarch

invasion of Silesia (War of Austrian Succession, 1740-48)

promote educ., abolish torture, codify law


Maria Theresa (1740-80) and Pragmatic Sanction

got Hungarian support and retained crown

centralized bureaucracy

limited feudal service

Joseph II

most enlightened

eliminate feudal obligations (overturned later)

Great Britain (prosperity and Parliament)

Constitutional balance

royal patronage

parties and minister (Walpole)

corruption and American Revolution

Seven Years War

Prussia/Austria adversaries

Diplomatic Revolution of 1756

partitions of Poland (1772, 1775, 1792)

Enlightenment and Old Regime

impact: set stage for French Revolution, social conditions produced grievances, ideas the tools/expectations/inspiration

Three Classes


set social tone

not all wealthy

land and offices

salons--patronized Enlightenment culture


diverse--professions, merchants, skilled workers

15% in G.B., 2% in E. Europe

envied nobles


leisure, ape nobles

coffee houses, theater

literacy--magazines, newspapers, novels

family life

romantic love


view of children

limit family size

Masses--new opportunities, new challenges

rising pop.-no decline this time (120 to 180 M)--Malthus

less warfare and less disease



new techniques--fertilizer, enclosure, livestock feed

the poor

10-15% in urban areas

lacked steady employment

wage labor, unskilled workers

charities strained

"deserving" and "undeserving" poor

workhouses, hospitals, prisons, mental institutions

popular culture

literacy--almanacs, fiction

village festivals

blood sports


Enlightenment--rationalism, secularism, individualism, reform

Voltaire sets the tone

Locke--views on education, contract theory

philosophes--Montesquieu, Hume, Condorcet, Diderot, Kant

Americans Paine and Franklin

economic--Adam Smith and invisible hand, free trade


nature, childhood, Social Contract, General Will


emotion, feeling, humanitarian impulse

result: provides goals of French Revolution, analogy of dynamoes

French Revolution and Napoleon

importance: ushered in modern mass politics, framed issues for next 200 years of govt. role in econ., ideal of equality, and nationalism

Old Regime

rigid class system

failure of absolute monarchy under Louis XV, XVI

revival of aristocracy

limited econ. opportunity


social--resentment of middle/lower class at privileges

political--battle between king and arist. for power

parlements and taxation

reform ministers--Turgot, Necker, Calonne, Brienne

intellectual--philosophes, ideals of Enlightenment



economic--financial crisis and crop failures of 1787-88

Liberal Revolution, June 1789-August 1792 (lib. nobles/upper bourg.)

Estates-General and cahiers


voting by order or head

National Assembly and Tennis Court Oath (Sieyes/Mirabeau)

Dec. of Rights of Man and Citizen (8/89)

popular political partic.

Bastille and National Guard (Lafayette)

Great Fear and destruction of feudalism (Aug. 1789)

October Days (role of women)

division within

Civil Constit. of Clergy (1790)

Constitution of 1791

econ. problems--inflation, deficits (laissez-faire)

king tries to escape

war--Declaration of Pillnetz (4/92)

Radicals, Aug. 1792-July 1794 (lower bourg., lower classes)


Girondins and Jacobins--Robespierre

Tuileries--king executed, republic proclaimed

Reign of Terror--Vendee, war (levee en masse), econ. crisis

composition of those executed

Republic of Virtue--women's role, de-Christianization, calendar

Directory/Thermidor, 1794-99 (upper bourg. back in control)

dependent on military victories (rise of Napoleon)

limited suffrage, luxurious style back

Consulate, 1799-1804 (Nap. engineers coup)

Empire, 1804-15

Napoleon's personality/appraisal--enl. despot, modern dictator, rev. hero

victories--various treaties, type of warfare


Continental System (1806)

invasion of Spain (1808)

invasion of Russia (1812)

pros: Code Napoleon, spread ideals, end feudalism

cons: plunder, national revolts, women, methods, secret police

Industrial Revolution

focus on: process, why Britain first, how other nations differ, incremental/uneven technology increase, impact on society and instit., govt. role

Agricultural Revolution

traditional farming techniques

Malthus and population pressures

rural life and household manufacture

new techniques--enclosure, fertilizer, new crops, specialization

Great Britain


resources--wood, coal, ore, rivers

island location

banking and financial backing

spirit of innovation, wealthy open to profit

flexible pol. system w/middle-class repres.


coal--Newcomen engine