Environmental Science – Cause and relationship underlying environmental issues, how natural environment works and regenerates, and its affect by human activities.
Ecology – Study of relationship among organisms and between organisms and their environment.
Hierarchy of Matter (from smallest to largest)
- Energy: The ability to cause changes.
2 kinds: Potential (unactualized e.g. gravity) & Kinetic (actualized, motion. e.g. electricity)
Kinetic (heat, electricity, light, movement) & Potential (gravity, chemical (a gallon of gasoline))
Relationship between mass and energy: Einstein’s equation:
Energy= mass X speed of light squared (E=mc2)
- Quarks: Frozen energy (e.g. up and down)
- Subatomic particles: protons (positive, made up of 3 quarks), neutrons (neutral, made of 3 quarks), electrons (negative, made up of one quark), together make up atoms.
- Atoms: smallest unit of element
Atoms: Oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, iron, they are in periodic table.
- Put atoms together to get molecules
2 kinds of molecules: Organic, carbon compounds (sugar, fiber, aspirin) & Inorganic, any other element (water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and carbonates [exceptions], sulfur dioxide, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl)).
- Biological macromolecules: Macromolecules of the living systems:
Major groups: protein – chain of amino acids, carbohydrates- made up of sugars, lipids – e.g. fats and oils, nucleic acids- e.g. DNA, and RNA.
- Atoms, molecules and macromolecules together form cells.
Cell membrane: covering, cytoplasm or cytosol: inside fluid, nucleus – center [DNA, genes], organelles: ribosome – produce protein, mitochondria – produces energy, lysosome – disposal of waste.
Picture of a cell:
- Tissues: Connective tissue (bone, cartilage, blood), epithelial tissue (covering), muscle tissue, nerve tissue.
- Tissues together form organs: Liver, heart, brain, kidney
- Organ systems: Nervous system, digestive system, respiratory system, cardiovascular (circulatory) system, urinary system.
- Organ systems together form organisms or individuals (people, cats, dogs, and trees)
- Populations: A group of organisms of the same species (organisms, which produce fertile offsprings).
- Communities: a group of populations.
- Ecosystems: A group of plants, animals and other living systems interacting with each other and with their environment.
- Biomes: A number of closely related ecosystems.
- Biosphere: Atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), lithosphere (earth’s crust).
Atmosphere: Thermosphere (low air density, highest level), mesosphere (temperature increasing as we ascend), stratosphere (where ozone is formed), troposphere (where clouds and pollution accumulate, lowest level).
- Planets and stars
- Solar system
- Cosmos or universe
Physics: Study of energy, quarks, and subatomic particles.
Chemistry: Study of atoms and molecules.
Biochemistry: Study of biological macromolecules.
Biology: Study of cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms
Cytology or cell biology: Study of cells.
Histology: Study of tissues.
Anatomy: Study of living system structures.
Physiology: Study of living system functions.
Ecology and environmental science: Study of populations, communities, ecosystems, biomes, and biosphere.
Geology: Study of Earth.
Astronomy: Study of planets, stars, solar systems, and galaxies.
Cosmology: Study of cosmos.