Heat Pump Newsletter 1










Following the last HEXAG meeting, some good progress has been made on bringing forward a range of compact heat exchangers to be included within the Enhanced Capital Allowance scheme. Brief details are given below of the types likely to be covered, and it is hoped to have positive news of the acceptance in principle by the next HEXAG meeting.

Although the DTI contract for HEXAG ran out in 2003, it is hoped that there will be an opportunity to bid for funds within the context of the forthcoming Innovation Programme. Information on this programme of the activities of relevance to HEXAG members will also be given at Warwick.

I have been invited by the Heat Transfer Society to be their President for one year from the end of March 2004. This is an honour which I have accepted with much pleasure, and I hope to bring HEXAG and the HTS closer as well as furthering the case for investment in R&D in heat transfer and heat exchangers – an area which is an uphill battle at present!

The Next HEXAG Meeting will be in the Department of Engineering, Warwick University on 12 May 2004. Please contact me if you would like to give a talk – ‘slots’ are still available.

David Reay – HEXAG Co-ordinator,

PO Box 25, Whitley Bay, Tyne & Wear, NE26 1QT, UK. Tel: 0191 251 2985. Fax: 0191 252 2229. Email:

HEXAG Web Site: www.hexag.hw.ac.uk



* Enhanced Capital Allowances * Message from the 8th UK Heat Transfer Conference Secretariate * EPSRC Staff Changes * EPSRC funding opportunities * Useful web sites * Changes at SWEP * Heat exchangers on the rise * US firm develops plastic fan coil * Reaction Engines Ltd. * Heat pipes get to the heart of problems * Staying cool by getting plastered * Intercooler sets benchmark for 6.6 * Valeo wins Euro 10 million deal for lightweight cooler * News from the Carbon Trust *Recent Literature & Patents *Forthcoming Events *HEXAG Help Line *The next HEXAG Meeting – May, 2004.


Progress has been made in the movement towards opening the opportunity for manufacturers to include compact heat exchangers (plate liquid-liquid, plate-fin and types such as those made by Heatric and Chart – the latter described by the Focus Group as ‘compact heat exchangers with precision-formed surfaces) on the approved list for Enhanced Capital Allowances. A Focus Group has discussed the criteria in some detail, and it is hoped that this will go forward for final approval soon. After this, manufacturers will have an opportunity to add equipment to the approved list, subject to each heat exchanger meeting performance and size criteria as set out by the Focus Group.

It is hoped that full information this and other initiatives in the buildings heat recovery area will be reported in more detail at the next HEXAG meeting at Warwick University.



Dear All,

Thank you all for coming to the 8th UK National Heat Transfer Conference, the organising committee hopes that you enjoyed the event. We were particularly pleased that so many graduate students from the UK and overseas attended. The attendance figures are given below.

Standard rate: 72

Student rate: 44

Retired rate: 7

University: 97

Industry: 26

After much deliberation due to the high standard of competition, HTFS have decided to jointly award the prize for the best paper having a student as an author to:

FB12: Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in a 3-Phase Circulating Fluidised Bed (Self Cleaning Heat Exchanger): Michael Arumemi-Ikhide, Khellil Sefiane, Don Glass (University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh)


HX8: Measurement and Interpretation of the Heat Transfer Coefficients of Metal Foams:A.J.Fuller, T.Kim, H.P.Hodson, T.J. Lu (University of Cambridge, Cambridge)

The posters and presentations for these papers can be viewed from the conference website: http://www.heat-transfer.org.uk/ukht2003

HTFS have also recommended three papers as highly commended:

CO1: A Dataset of Steam Condensation over a Double Enhanced Tube Bundle under Vacuum: T. H. Ooi, D. R. Webb and P. J.Heggs (UMIST, Manchester)

TR2a: Experimental Studies of Heat Transfer in a Tube Bundle Model: T. H. Choudhury, L. Liu, N. K. Duggan, B. Hu, S. M. Richardson, G. F. Hewitt (Imperial College, London)

CR06: The Effect of Combined Radiation and Convection on Hot Dip Galvanizing Kettle Wear: S.G. Blakey, S.B.M. Beck (University of Sheffield, Sheffield)

The committee would like to express their congratulations to the authors of these papers.

Finally we have been asked to draw your attention to the ECOS2004 17th International Conference on Efficiency, Costs, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy and Process Systems. This will be held in Guanajuato, Mexico, July 7 -9, 2004. More information can be found at: http://ecos2004.imp.mx or by e-mailing

Best regards, Jenny Goodman

UK National Heat Transfer Conference Web Secretary


EPSRC Staff Changes

Things are all change at EPSRC, with several recent staff moves:

·  Dr Susan Morrell has moved from being Head of the Technology Sector Team to lead the new IDEAS Factory.

·  Vince Osgood has moved from the role of ICT Programme Manager to become Head of the Technology Sector Team.

·  Dr Lesley Thompson has moved from the role of Life Sciences Interface Programme Manager to take over as ICT Programme Manager.

·  Dr Lizzy Hylton has moved from the role of Engineering Programme Manager to take over as Life Sciences Interface Programme Manager.

·  Dr Alicia Greated takes over as Engineering Programme Manager on 16th February, having been promoted from Associate Programme Manager in the Engineering Team.


EPSRC Funding Opportunities

The major route of funding available from EPSRC is through applications to the Responsive Mode. The Responsive Mode is very flexible; anyone employed by a Higher Education Institute in the UK on a permanent contract can apply for funding at anytime, for whatever resources are needed to carry out the research, for any subject within the EPSRC remit (Engineering and the Physical Sciences).

There is no minimum or maximum funding, and no minimum or maximum grant period. A typical grant is about £180,000 over three years, but grants can be for a few weeks (an overseas travel grant for example) up to major awards in excess of £10 million over five or six years.

Examples of things that can be funded as part of a Responsive Mode grant include:

·  Feasibility Studies: It is possible to apply for funding for a short-term project to test the feasibility of an idea which, if successful, may lead to an application for funding for a larger project in the longer term.

·  First Grants: For individuals applying to EPSRC for funding for the first time and within 24 months of their first academic salaried appointment in a UK university. This provides funding of up to £120,000.

·  Overseas Travel Grants: These are small value grants that can provide up to £20,000 for travel and subsistence to allow the investigators to visit recognised research centres overseas to study new techniques or to develop new collaborations (not for conference attendance).

·  Visiting Fellowships: To enable scientists or engineers of acknowledged standing from within the UK or abroad to visit the proposer's institution to give advice and assistance. A Visiting Fellowship provides funding to cover the travel, subsistence and salary costs of the visiting fellow for up to one year.

·  Platform Grants. These are highly prestigious awards for internationally leading groups. The awards nurture creativity, flexibility and adventure in an already strong research environment to provide continuity for key contract researchers and technicians. The awards are for up to five years and £400,000.

·  Multi-university projects: It is possible to apply for funding to support a group of universities to work together on a long-term research programme with or without industrial collaboration.

·  Equipment grants: It is possible to apply for funding for a piece of equipment, this can include the technical support required to run the equipment.

Advice about EPSRC remit and EPSRC application and assessment procedures can be provided by the relevant EPSRC Associate Programme Manager (in the case of heat transfer this is Dr Emma Feltham: , phone: 01793 444478).


International Institute of Refrigeration


The IUR has a bimonthly newsletter, which carries information on conferences in the refrigeration/cryogenics area, news of IIR activities, and information on other IIR publications.

www.thecarbontrust.co.uk For up-to-date information on R&D funding opportunities etc.

www.dti.gov.uk For data on new support programmes. The Innovation Report makes good reading.

www.pinetwork.org This is the NEW web address of the Process Intensification Network – PIN.


Changes at SWEP

SWEP International PHE has combined with its US-based sister company Tranter PHE – the SWEP name will continue as a ‘brand name’ exclusively for the manufacture of compact brazed heat exchangers but the US company name will be adopted. The company supplies gasketed and welded heat exchanger offering a single supply source. Some manufacturing and R&D facilities will be combined.


Heat Exchangers on the Rise

European sales of heat exchangers are expected to benefit from expected economic rebound in 2005, according to a new report by Frost & Sullivan.

Total sales in 2003 reached £1.76bn and are expected to reach £2bn by 2010. All-welded exchangers, brazed exchangers are all highlighted for particular growth.

Sales to eastern Europe are expected to increase at more than twice the rate of markets in western Europe.

European manufacturers are experiencing increased competition from cheap imports from pacific rim countries and eastern Europe.

Shell and tube exchangers accounted for the largest share of the market in 2003 with sales estimated at £541m. However growth was weak at 1% and is expected to remain poor in 2004.

Air-cooled heat exchangers are the next largest category with sales of £380m.

German was identified as the largest market, taking 29.1% of total sales in 2003. However, Frost & Sullivan sees poor economic growth spelling lacklustre developments and an eventual decline in Germany’s relative share of future revenues.

The UK is seen as a significant market and, despite slowing demand from our home market, is expected to benefit from the strength of our contractors in winning overseas markets.

For further details and to order a copy of the report contact Frost & Sullivan on 020 7343 8376.


US firm develops plastic fan coil

A US company has developed a range of plastic fan coils using DuPont’s Caltrel plastic heat exchanger technology.

Being made of plastic, the heat exchangers will not corrode and being that plastic surfaces are inherently smoother than copper, the frictional effects of flowing fluids are decreased and pressure losses reduced. The material’s natural dampening characteristics are also said to minimise vibrations and noise.

Robert Yoho, president of the manufacturers PowerCold described the PlexCoil as “one of the most significant advances in air conditioning technology in recent years.”

Wind tunnel tests are said to have demonstrated superiority over conventional heat exchangers relative to air-side pressure, water flow rates and heat transfer rates.

In January 2003, PowerCold announced collaboration with DuPont to test new materials for air conditioning units. The two companies have been testing the use of new plastic heat exchangers in air condition systems in high humidity environments.

PowerCold signed a joint development and license agreement for the heat exchangers in May 2003.

DoPont’s Caltrel plastic coil material can be applied to hot or cold water resulting in the same performance. It does not accumulate encrustation and is not subject to oxidation, corrosion, microbiological attack, or galvanic action. This allows the fan coil to function in hostile environments near salt water, aggressive vapours or corrosive fluids.

Industry groups estimate the US fan coil market to be well over $300m and the global fan coil market to be over $1bn.

The system has already been specified for The Hilton Garden Inn Resort Hotel in St. Augustine Florida.

All the exhaust air will be captured through heat exchangers and the waste heat and cooling will be used to heat and cool the outside air being brought in to each guest room fan coil unit.

FROM ACR News, January 2004.


Reaction Engines Ltd

A summary of Reaction Engines Ltd

Reaction Engines Ltd (REL) was incorporated as a limited company in August 1989 and began trading in June 1990. REL is both expert an experienced in space transportation generally and the engines of reusable space launchers specifically. In particular, REL is a world leader in the field of heat exchanger technology for use in the engines of advanced reusable space launchers.

REL’s overall project, SKYLON, is for a fully reusable space launcher, for which the overall design is now very mature and detailed in its final configuration. Details of SKYLON are included in the Appendix to this Summary.

Lack of UK Government support for the SKYLON project has limited the objectives of REL, at least temporarily. However, the pre-cooler technology developed for the SABRE hybrid engine, which is central to the SKYLON project, can be used in other similar projects and may have spin-offs in conventional turbojet engines and mobile refrigeration systems. The SABRE hybrid engine is the crux of the design as the vehicle achieves a velocity of Mach 26.

The engines depend on very efficient heat exchangers. Incoming air to each nacelle is compressed and heats to about 1,000oC. The pre-cooler cools the incoming air to –140oC which is then mixed with liquid hydrogen to power the jet phase of flight. Both SABRE engines in both nacelles have two further heat exchangers, each cooled by liquid hydrogen.

Heat exchangers for aerospace propulsion must have a very large surface area within a very small volume. They must operate over a high pressure difference and span a temperature range from very high to very low. Above all, they must be very light. A further complication is caused by water in the earth’s atmosphere, which would freeze in the colder part of the heat exchanger unless properly controlled. Any advantage gained by having heat exchangers in aerospace engines would be more than cancelled out if this frost control problem were not fully solved.