Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Respiratory System 22

Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System

1. Complete the following statements by inserting the correct letter in the answer blanks.

a. cartilaged. moisteng. pharynx j. vocal cords

b. cleansee. nasal septumh. sinusesk. warm

c. larynx f. nostrils i. thyroid

_____ 1.Air enters the nasal cavity of the respiratory system through the _1_. The nasal cavity is divided by the midline _2_. The nasal cavity mucosa has several functions. Its major

_____ 2.functions are to _3_, _4_, and _5_ the incoming air. Mucous membrane-lined cavities called _6_ are found in several bones surrounding the nasal cavities. They make the

_____ 3.skull less heavy and probably act as resonance chambers for speech. The passageway common to the digestive and respiratory systems, the _7_, is often referred to as the

_____ 4.throat; it connects the nasal cavity with the _8_ below. Clusters of lymphatic tissue, tonsils, are part of the defensive system of the body. Reinforcement of the trachea with

_____ 5._9_ rings prevents its collapse during pressure changes that occur during breathing. The fact that the rings are incomplete posteriorly allows a food bolus or bulge anteriorly

_____ 6.during its transport to the stomach. The larynx or voice box is built from many cartilages, but the largest is the “Adam’s apple” or _10_ cartilage. Within the larynx are

_____ 7.the _11_, which vibrate with exhaled air and allow an individual to speak.

_____ 8.

_____ 9.

_____ 10.

_____ 11.

2. Using the key choices, select the letter in the answer blank.

a. alveolic. conchaee. esophagus

b. bronchiolesd. epiglottis f. trachea

_____ 1. Smallest conducting respiratory passageways

_____ 2. Food passageway posterior to the trachea

_____ 3. Closes off the larynx during swallowing

_____ 4. Windpipe

_____ 5. Actual site of gas exchange

_____ 6. Fleshy lobes in the nasal cavity which increases its surface area

3. Figure 23-1 is a sagittal view of the upper respiratory structures. First, correctly identify all structures provided with leader lines on the figure. Then select different colors for the structures listed below and use them to color in the coding circles and the corresponding structures on the figure.

nasal cavitylarynxpharynxtrachea

Figure 23-1

4. The following questions refer to the primary bronchi. In the spaces provided, insert the letter R to indicate the right primary bronchus and the letter L to indicate the left primary bronchus.

_____ 1. The primary bronchi which has the larger diameter

_____ 2. The primary bronchi which is more horizontal

_____ 3. The primary bronchi which is the most common site for lodging of a foreign object that has entered the respiratory passageway

The Lungs and Pleural Coverings

5. Figure 23-2 illustrates the gross anatomy of the lower respiratory system. Intact structures are shown on the left; respiratory passages are shown on the right. Select a different color for each of the structures listed below and use it to color in the coding circles and the corresponding structures on the figure. Then complete the figure by labeling the areas/structures that are provided with the leader lines on the figure.

Tracheaprimary bronchi

Larynxsecondary bronchi

Figure 23-2

Mechanics of Breathing

6. Many changes occur within the lungs as the diaphragm (and external intercostals muscles) contract and then relax. These changes lead to the flow of air into and out of the lungs. The activity of the diaphragm is given in the left column of the following table. Several changes in condition are listed in the column heads to the right. Complete the table by checking () the appropriate column to correctly identify the change that would be occurring relative to the diaphragm’s activities in each case.

7. Use the key choices to respond to the following descriptions. Insert the correct letter in the answer blanks.

a. external respirationc. inspiratione. ventilation (breathing)

b. expirationd. internal respiration

_____ 1. Period of breathing when air enters the lungs

_____ 2. Exchange of gases between the systemic capillary blood and body cells

_____ 3. Alternate flushing of air into and out of the lungs

_____ 4. Exchange of gases between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood

8. Four nonrespiratory movements are described here. Identify each by inserting your answers in the spaces provided.

a. coughb. hiccupc. sneezed. yawn

_____ 1. Sudden inspiration, resulting from spasms of the diaphragm

_____ 2. A deep breath is taken, the glottis is closed, and air is forced out of the lungs against the

glottis; clears the lower respiratory passageways

_____ 3. As just described, but clears the upper respiratory passageways

_____ 4. Increases ventilation of the lungs; may be initiated by a need to increase oxygen levels in the blood

9. The following section concerns respiratory volume measurements. Using key choices, select the terms identified in the following descriptions by inserting the appropriate letter in the answer blanks.

a. dead space volumec. inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)e. tidal volume (TV)

b. residual volume (RV)d. expiratory reserve volume (ERV) f. vital capacity (VC)

_____ 1. Respiratory volume inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing

_____ 2. Air in respiratory passages that does not contribute to gas exchange

_____ 3. Total amount of exchangeable air

_____ 4. Gas volume that allows gas exchange to go on continuously

_____ 5. Amount of air that can still be exhaled (forcibly) after a normal exhalation

Gas Exchanges in the Body

10. Using the key choices to correctly complete the following statements, which refer to gas exchanges in the body. Insert the correct letter response in the answer blanks.

a. active transport f. diffusion

b. air of alveoli to capillary bloodg. higher concentration

c. carbon dioxide-poor and oxygen-richh. lower concentration

d. capillary blood to alveolar air i. oxygen-poor and carbon dioxide-rich

e. capillary blood to tissue cells j. tissue cells to capillary blood

_____ 1.All gas exchanges are made by _1_. When substances pass in this manner, they move from areas of _2_ to areas of _3_. Thus oxygen continually passes from the _4_ and

_____ 2.then from the _5_. Conversely, carbon dioxide moves from the _6_ and from _7_. From there it passes out of the blood during expiration. As a result of such exchanges,

_____ 3.arterial blood tends to be _8_ while venous blood is _9_.

_____ 4._____ 6._____ 8.

_____ 5._____ 7._____ 9.

Transport of Respiratory Gases by Blood

11. Complete the following statements by inserting your answers in the answer blanks.

______1.Most oxygen is transported bound to _1_ inside the red blood cells.

Conversely, most carbon dioxide is carried in the form of _2_ in the

______2._3_. Carbon monoxide poisoning is lethal because carbon monoxide competes with _4_ for binding sites.



Homeostatic Imbalances of the Respiratory System

12. Match the terms in Column B with the pathologic conditions described in column A.

Column AColumn B

_____ 1. Lack or cessation of breathinga. apnea

b. asthma

_____ 2. Normal breathing in terms of rate and depthc. chronic bronchitis

d. dyspnea

_____ 3. Labored breathing or “air hunger”e. emphysema

f. eupnea

_____ 4. Chronic oxygen deficiencyg. hypoxia

h. lung cancer

_____ 5. Condition characterized by fibrosis of the lungs i. tuberculosis

and an increase in size of the alveolar chambers

_____ 6. Condition characterized by increased mucus

production, which clogs respiratory passageways

and promotes coughing

_____ 7. Respiratory passageways narrowed by bronchiolar


_____ 8. Together called COPD

_____ 9. Incidence strongly associated with cigarette

smoking; outlook is poor

_____ 10. Infection spread by airborne bacteria; a recent

alarming increase in drug users and AIDS victims