Respiratory System 22
Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System
1. Complete the following statements by inserting the correct letter in the answer blanks.
a. cartilaged. moisteng. pharynx j. vocal cords
b. cleansee. nasal septumh. sinusesk. warm
c. larynx f. nostrils i. thyroid
_____ 1.Air enters the nasal cavity of the respiratory system through the _1_. The nasal cavity is divided by the midline _2_. The nasal cavity mucosa has several functions. Its major
_____ 2.functions are to _3_, _4_, and _5_ the incoming air. Mucous membrane-lined cavities called _6_ are found in several bones surrounding the nasal cavities. They make the
_____ 3.skull less heavy and probably act as resonance chambers for speech. The passageway common to the digestive and respiratory systems, the _7_, is often referred to as the
_____ 4.throat; it connects the nasal cavity with the _8_ below. Clusters of lymphatic tissue, tonsils, are part of the defensive system of the body. Reinforcement of the trachea with
_____ 5._9_ rings prevents its collapse during pressure changes that occur during breathing. The fact that the rings are incomplete posteriorly allows a food bolus or bulge anteriorly
_____ 6.during its transport to the stomach. The larynx or voice box is built from many cartilages, but the largest is the “Adam’s apple” or _10_ cartilage. Within the larynx are
_____ 7.the _11_, which vibrate with exhaled air and allow an individual to speak.
2. Using the key choices, select the letter in the answer blank.
a. alveolic. conchaee. esophagus
b. bronchiolesd. epiglottis f. trachea
_____ 1. Smallest conducting respiratory passageways
_____ 2. Food passageway posterior to the trachea
_____ 3. Closes off the larynx during swallowing
_____ 4. Windpipe
_____ 5. Actual site of gas exchange
_____ 6. Fleshy lobes in the nasal cavity which increases its surface area
3. Figure 23-1 is a sagittal view of the upper respiratory structures. First, correctly identify all structures provided with leader lines on the figure. Then select different colors for the structures listed below and use them to color in the coding circles and the corresponding structures on the figure.
4. The following questions refer to the primary bronchi. In the spaces provided, insert the letter R to indicate the right primary bronchus and the letter L to indicate the left primary bronchus.
_____ 1. The primary bronchi which has the larger diameter
_____ 2. The primary bronchi which is more horizontal
_____ 3. The primary bronchi which is the most common site for lodging of a foreign object that has entered the respiratory passageway
The Lungs and Pleural Coverings
5. Figure 23-2 illustrates the gross anatomy of the lower respiratory system. Intact structures are shown on the left; respiratory passages are shown on the right. Select a different color for each of the structures listed below and use it to color in the coding circles and the corresponding structures on the figure. Then complete the figure by labeling the areas/structures that are provided with the leader lines on the figure.
Mechanics of Breathing
6. Many changes occur within the lungs as the diaphragm (and external intercostals muscles) contract and then relax. These changes lead to the flow of air into and out of the lungs. The activity of the diaphragm is given in the left column of the following table. Several changes in condition are listed in the column heads to the right. Complete the table by checking () the appropriate column to correctly identify the change that would be occurring relative to the diaphragm’s activities in each case.
7. Use the key choices to respond to the following descriptions. Insert the correct letter in the answer blanks.
a. external respirationc. inspiratione. ventilation (breathing)
b. expirationd. internal respiration
_____ 1. Period of breathing when air enters the lungs
_____ 2. Exchange of gases between the systemic capillary blood and body cells
_____ 3. Alternate flushing of air into and out of the lungs
_____ 4. Exchange of gases between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood
8. Four nonrespiratory movements are described here. Identify each by inserting your answers in the spaces provided.
a. coughb. hiccupc. sneezed. yawn
_____ 1. Sudden inspiration, resulting from spasms of the diaphragm
_____ 2. A deep breath is taken, the glottis is closed, and air is forced out of the lungs against the
glottis; clears the lower respiratory passageways
_____ 3. As just described, but clears the upper respiratory passageways
_____ 4. Increases ventilation of the lungs; may be initiated by a need to increase oxygen levels in the blood
9. The following section concerns respiratory volume measurements. Using key choices, select the terms identified in the following descriptions by inserting the appropriate letter in the answer blanks.
a. dead space volumec. inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)e. tidal volume (TV)
b. residual volume (RV)d. expiratory reserve volume (ERV) f. vital capacity (VC)
_____ 1. Respiratory volume inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing
_____ 2. Air in respiratory passages that does not contribute to gas exchange
_____ 3. Total amount of exchangeable air
_____ 4. Gas volume that allows gas exchange to go on continuously
_____ 5. Amount of air that can still be exhaled (forcibly) after a normal exhalation
Gas Exchanges in the Body
10. Using the key choices to correctly complete the following statements, which refer to gas exchanges in the body. Insert the correct letter response in the answer blanks.
a. active transport f. diffusion
b. air of alveoli to capillary bloodg. higher concentration
c. carbon dioxide-poor and oxygen-richh. lower concentration
d. capillary blood to alveolar air i. oxygen-poor and carbon dioxide-rich
e. capillary blood to tissue cells j. tissue cells to capillary blood
_____ 1.All gas exchanges are made by _1_. When substances pass in this manner, they move from areas of _2_ to areas of _3_. Thus oxygen continually passes from the _4_ and
_____ 2.then from the _5_. Conversely, carbon dioxide moves from the _6_ and from _7_. From there it passes out of the blood during expiration. As a result of such exchanges,
_____ 3.arterial blood tends to be _8_ while venous blood is _9_.
_____ 4._____ 6._____ 8.
_____ 5._____ 7._____ 9.
Transport of Respiratory Gases by Blood
11. Complete the following statements by inserting your answers in the answer blanks.
______1.Most oxygen is transported bound to _1_ inside the red blood cells.
Conversely, most carbon dioxide is carried in the form of _2_ in the
______2._3_. Carbon monoxide poisoning is lethal because carbon monoxide competes with _4_ for binding sites.
Homeostatic Imbalances of the Respiratory System
12. Match the terms in Column B with the pathologic conditions described in column A.
Column AColumn B
_____ 1. Lack or cessation of breathinga. apnea
_____ 2. Normal breathing in terms of rate and depthc. chronic bronchitis
_____ 3. Labored breathing or “air hunger”e. emphysema
_____ 4. Chronic oxygen deficiencyg. hypoxia
h. lung cancer
_____ 5. Condition characterized by fibrosis of the lungs i. tuberculosis
and an increase in size of the alveolar chambers
_____ 6. Condition characterized by increased mucus
production, which clogs respiratory passageways
and promotes coughing
_____ 7. Respiratory passageways narrowed by bronchiolar
_____ 8. Together called COPD
_____ 9. Incidence strongly associated with cigarette
smoking; outlook is poor
_____ 10. Infection spread by airborne bacteria; a recent
alarming increase in drug users and AIDS victims