Flyback or Boost-mode Converter Fundamentals
Common TopologiesA topology is the arrangement of the power devices and their magnetic elements. Each topology has its own merits within certain applications. Some of the factors which determine the suitability of a particular topology to a certain application are:
1) Is the topology electrically isolated from the input to the output or not.
2) How much of the input voltage is placed across the inductor or transformer.
3) What is the peak current flowing through the power semiconductors.
4) Are multiple outputs required.
5) How much voltage appears across the power semiconductors.
The first choice that faces the designer is whether to have input to output transformer isolation. Non-isolated switching power supplies are typically used for board-level regulation where a dielectric barrier is provided elsewhere within the system. Non-isolated topologies should also be used where the possibility of a failure does not connect the input power source to the fragile load circuitry. / Transformer isolation should be used in all other situations. Associated with that is the need for multiple output voltages. Transformers provide an easy method for adding additional output voltages to the switching power supply. The companies building their own power systems are leaning toward transformer isolation in as many power supplies as possible since it prevents a domino effect during failure conditions.
The remainders of the factors involve how much stress the power semiconductors are being subjected to. Table 1 shows the differences between the various topologies used within switching power supplies. Figure 4 illustrates where the transformer-isolated topologies are typically used within the power industry at various power and voltage levels. At reduced DC input voltages and at higher powers, the peak currents that must be sustained by the power switch grow higher which then affects the stress they must endure. The various areas show which topology best fits within that range of input voltage and output power that exhibits the least amount of stress on the power semiconductors.
- SWITCHMODE Power Supplies.pdf
Reference Books Relating to Switching Power Supply Design
Baliga, B. Jayant,
Power Semiconductor Devices, PWS Publishing Co., Boston, 1996. 624 pages.
Practical Switching Power Supply Design, Academic Press, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1990. 240 pages.
Power Supply Cookbook, EDN Series for Design Engineers, ON Semiconductor Series in Solid State Electronics,
Butterworth–Heinmann, MA, 1994. 238 pages
Chrysiss, G. C.,
High Frequency Switching Power Supplies: Theory and Design, Second Edition, McGraw–Hill, 1989. 287 pages
Gottlieb, Irving M.,
Power Supplies, Switching Regulators, Inverters, and Converters, 2nd Edition, TAB Books, 1994. 479 pages.
Kassakian, John G., Martin F. Schlect, and George C. Verghese,
Principles of Power Electronics, Addison–Wesley, 1991. 738 pages.
Computer–Aided Analysis and Design of Switch–Mode Power Supplies, Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY, 1993
Lenk, John D.,
Simplified Design of Switching Power Supplies, EDN Series for Design Engineers, Butterworth–Heinmann, MA,
1994. 221 pages.
McLyman, C. W. T.,
Designing Magnetic Components for High Frequency DC–DC Converters, KG Magnetics, San Marino, CA, 1993.
433 pages, 146 figures, 32 tables
Small–Signal MathCAD Design Aids, e/j Bloom Associates, 115 Duran Drive, San Rafael, Ca 94903–2317,
415–492–8443, 1992. Computer disk included.
Mohan, Ned, Tore M. Undeland, William P. Robbins,
Power Electronics: Converter, Applications and Design, 2nd Edition, Wiley, 1995. 802 pages
Paice, Derek A.,
Power Electronic Converter Harmonics, Multipulse Methods for Clean Power, IEEE Press, 1995. 224 pages.
Whittington, H. W.,
Switched Mode Power Supplies: Design and Construction, 2nd Edition, Wiley, 1996 224 pages.
Web Locations for Switching–Mode Power Supply Information
Ardem Associates (Dr. R. David Middlebrook)
Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC)
The power electronics conference for the practical aspects of power supplies.
Dr. Vincent G. Bello’s Home Page
SPICE simulation for switching–mode power supplies.
e/j BLOOM Associates
(Ed Bloom) Educational Materials & Services for Power Electronics.
The Darnell Group
(Jeff Shepard) Contains an excellent list of power electronics websites, an extensive list of manufacturer’s contact
information and more.
Switching–Mode Power Supply Design by Jerrold Foutz
An excellent location for switching mode power supply information and links to other sources.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
IEEE Power Electronics Society
Power Control and Intelligent Motion (PCIM)
Articles from present and past issues.
Frank Greenhalgh’s Power Corner in EDTN
Power Quality Assurance Magazine
Articles from present and past issues.
Power Sources Manufacturers Association
A trade organization for the power sources industry.
Quantum Power Labs
An excellent hypertext–linked glossary of power electronics terms.
Ridley Engineering, Inc.
Dr. Ray Ridley