European Community Antitrust Law-Innovation Markets and High Technology Industries
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY ANTITRUST LAW-INNOVATION MARKETS AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRIES
by John Temple Lang LL.D.(*)
Fordham Corporate Law Institute
I. Features of High Technology Industry4
II. The case law of the Court which is relevant to high tech industries12
III. Short term benefits.36
IV. Community competition law in regulated industries70
V. Practical consequences for lawyers83
(*)Director in the Competition Directorate General - European Commission
Professor, Trinity College Dublin
Opinions expressed are purely personal
Computers' ...... cultural impact probably won't be as great,
and cannot be as bad, as that of TV
James Fallows, New York Review of Books,
February 15, 1996 p. 18
There is no necessary connection between great science and great business opportunities : the general theory of relativity has yet to be turned into a money-spinner.
The Economist, Survey of Biotechnology and Genetics,
February 25, 1995, p. 4
The phrase "high technology industries" is usually understood to mean telecommunications, aerospace, biotechnology, computers and computer software and related industries. This paper considers how far those industries give rise to European Community antitrust law questions which are new and limited to or characteristic of those high technology industries. There are many industries today which use telecommunications for transferring information, or which use sometimes very powerful computers either in production or design processes or in the end product itself, but which are not popularly thought of as high technology industries and which do not seem to raise any special or characteristic antitrust issues. These latter industries are largely outside the scope of this paper.
The original idea behind this paper was that it should discuss the Community antitrust law experience of the issues discussed at the US Federal Trade Commission hearings and in the excellent FTC Report on innovation competition. However, not all the issues considered by the FTC have arisen in Europe to an extent which makes it worthwhile to consider them, and some issues have arisen or are arising in Europe which have not been considered by the FTC. This paper therefore is limited to European issues, to issues characteristic of high-technology sectors and primarily to issues of law and not of economics. It therefore does not repeat the many points in the FTC Report which would certainly be accepted by the European Commission, and probably also by the Community Courts, but which have not yet clearly arisen in Europe.
I. Features of High Technology Industry
The most important features of high technology industry for the purposes of this paper are:
1.Speed of technological change. In computers and software, biotechnology, information technology, telecommunications and television, technological change is much more rapid than in most other industries. In telecommunications in particular, the combined effects of digital transmission, fibre optics, micro electronics and wireless telephony has enormous implications (especially when combined with liberalisation of regulatory regimes in Europe). Product life cycles are often short.
This often means important first mover advantages, which may in turn create a need for interim antitrust measures.
2.Due to technological change, research and development is extremely important for all companies in these sectors, and all companies need to spend very large amounts of money on R&D. In some industries the initial fixed costs of production, including R&D, are vastly greater than the marginal cost of additional units of production. This raises complex issues concerning predatory pricing. It also increases the importance of patents.
3.A third feature is the technical sophistication and the complexity of the goods and services in these industries and the processes used to produce them. These goods include dual-use goods which are suitable for use both for military and for civilian purposes.
4.As a result of the features already mentioned, patents and knowhow are extremely important and, in the field of biotechnology, so is scientific knowledge which is not patentable and which is more basic than anything normally described as knowhow.
5.In these sectors, regulatory issues are important in Europe. Apart from competition law, questions arise as to what extent (if at all) should these sectors be regulated either by the European Community or (insofar as this may be useful or possible) by the national authorities of Member States. In telecommunications, liberalisation and ending of the former national monopolies is creating scope for competition and the need to apply antitrust law more fully.
6.Another important feature is that previously separated operations are becoming integrated and previously integrated tasks are becoming separated from one another. (For example, in 1993-1994, it was thought by industry analysts that the video game, computer and cable TV industries would come together. More recently attention has concentrated more on the Internet and World Wide Web, on the coming together of "content providers" and the means of distribution of their films, videos, books and programmes and on the convergence of Television and Interactive personal computer technologies). The boundaries between upstream and downstream markets are changing. Telephone, cable broadcasting and computer companies are all coming into the same series of new related markets. Railway and cable television companies are using or planning to use their optical fibre networks for telecommunications purposes. Where (as in the case of the essential facilities antitrust law principle) the boundaries of markets are legally important, it is essential for antitrust lawyers to understand these changes and their significance.
7.These industries are also characterised by many functional service relationships between companies as buyers and suppliers of infrastructure. These relationships, which often involve a high degree of dependence, give rise to legal questions of access, exclusivity and foreclosure, as well as access charge policies and interconnection issues, which are usually thought of as regulatory rather than antitrust issues. They also give rise to the possibility of day-to-day minor discrimination and resulting controversies. All this means that companies are often reluctant to make formal complaints against other companies with which they need to maintain working relationships. This may make it necessary for the Commission to begin procedures on its own initiative when normally it would act only on complaints, as the Commission prefers to do.
8.Some of these industries, notably telecommunications, include companies which still have monopoly rights in some areas (in particular voice telephony) which would enable them, unless constrained by law from doing so, to cross-subsidise and exclude competitors from competitive markets.
9.High-tech markets are characterised by the complexity of relationships, due in part to the number of different kinds of companies which may be involved in any given situation. For example, in cable television there are the companies that own the transmitters and satellites, programme producers, advertisers and cable-owning companies, as well as viewers and competitors of any of all of these companies, and companies such as sports organisations, stadium owners, and Olympic Committees who own the right to broadcast sport events, and film studios with portfolios of films.
10.It is sometimes said that in these markets innovation may be more important than prices, in particular where the market itself is emerging and wholly new products or services coming into existence. It is, however, important to be clear. In these markets price is often less important than the technical or other advantages of the product. These advantages are usually due to an innovation, which is likely to be a recent innovation because all or almost all the features of these products are changing. But it is not innovation as such which constitutes the advantage, and one cannot assume that any innovation is always and automatically an improvement or is better than a competitor's product which has not changed in this particular respect. It is unlikely that there is any precise or useful statistical relationship between R&D expenditure of different companies in the same industry and their relative market shares at a given time later. As it is their position relative to one another which is important for antitrust law, simply measuring the total R&D spending does not seem to help very much. In the software industry, for example, what seems to be crucial is to have programmers who know how to produce the next product which the market will need or will buy.
11.In information-based industries, the value of products or services is often affected by the number of companies or individuals participating in the network or system. Examples given in the FTC Report are "automatic teller networks, computer operating systems, facsimile communication protocols, word processing programmes, video game systems, spread sheet programs, cable TV systems, and office e-mail". This leads to a need for standards or interface definitions.
As the FTC pointed out, this may necessitate antitrust scrutiny of procedures for admitting or excluding participants, and of dominance of companies controlling the system, network or interface standard. This issue has arisen in Europe.
12.Other features of these sectors, which they share with other industries but which are nevertheless important, are the great size of some of the companies and the huge amounts of money involved, high entry barriers, in some areas, many strategic alliances, short product life cycles, great inequality between the sizes of some competitors and the fact that, for some products and services at least, the markets will be world wide in the foreseeable future, or are becoming so already.
However, the fact that in some industries (e.g. media) there are companies with worldwide activities does not prove that the markets are worldwide. In Europe the markets for television, radio and newspapers are essentially national, for a series of linguistic, cultural, social and commercial reasons, and they will almost certainly continue to be national. In some industries partly separate national markets continued to exist at least until 1995 due to national regulatory policies, or companies' behaviour, or both, e.g. pharmaceuticals.
13.In one important high technology industry, telecommunications, as part of the Community's liberalisation programme, the Commission has published guidelines on the application of EEC Competition rules in the telecommunications sector. This article does not analyse those guidelines in detail, but many of the principles found in them are referred to here. The guidelines also illustrate how closely antitrust and regulatory issues are linked in this industry, and to a lesser extent in other high-tech industries.
High Technology industries in Europe
It is important to remember something else about high technology industries in Europe :
"European firms have been bad at getting into new high-tech industries. Europe's high-tech firms are feeble in comparison with American ones. Only two of the top 20 software firms are European. Staid bankers are suspicious of revolutionary ideas. Venture capitalists have no one to sell their investments to. In a world where small, even symbolic stakes give bankers or founding families a great deal of say in the management of firms, it often impossible to get outsiders in to invest"
This fact, combined with the fact that there is less public discussion of antitrust economics in Europe than in the USA, has caused this paper to be very different from the Federal Trade Commission's Report. The end results are similar, but there is less to say about them. This is also because there is much less antitrust litigation in Europe than in the USA. More cases are brought to antitrust authorities than to the courts, and this means that the intellectual development of antitrust law is largely in the hands of the antitrust authorities. Since they are mostly understaffed and overworked, intellectual development is driven by cases and not by studies or formal discussion of antitrust economics.
Kinds of legal issue raised by High Technology Industries
Some of the most important legal issues in EC antitrust law characteristically raised by high technology industries are :
-is future market power more effectively measured by comparing R&D expenditure than by measuring present market shares ?
-are the boundaries of present markets and the degree of substitutability of products or services involved likely to change in a way which is significant for antitrust assessment ?
-do the features of whatever market is relevant in any particular case mean that dominance and market power is more or less stable than it would otherwise be ?
-it is useful to speak of a separate market for R&D, or is a large and successful R&D activity merely an important competitive advantage to be taken into account when assessing dominance ?
-in what circumstances are selective pricing and cross subsidies by dominant companies unlawful ?
-what are the criteria for joint dominance and abuse of a joint dominant position in rapidly changing market ?
-is the concept of an essential facility useful in connection with horizontally integrated companies ?
-how does competition law regulate access to membership of networks ?
-when, if ever, is it right to regard scientific knowledge as an essential facility in the biotechnology industry ?
-whether it is necessary to develop new categories of abuse of dominant positions, contrary to Article 86. (It is generally agreed that it is unlawful for a dominant enterprise to use, for its own purposes, information it gets from providing a service to one of its competitors. But this kind of misbehaviour does not fit neatly into the three traditional categories of exploitative, anticompetitive or exclusionary and reprisal abuses. It is probably best regarded as exploitative, taking unfair advantage of the dominant position).
-where is the right place to draw the boundary between antitrust law and regulation of industries for non-competition objectives ?
-what kind of behaviour is predatory if the marginal cost of additional production is almost zero ?
This paper does not, and could not, do more than analyse some aspects of the problems which are specific to high tech industries. It could not resolve them all or discuss them all exhaustively.
In addition to these special issues, high technology industries also raise some constitutional issues, discussed in Part IV of this paper, and some more general issues of EC antitrust law in a particularly acute way. These include:
-intellectual property and antitrust law.
-justifications for refusing access to essential facilities.
-Article 90 EC Treaty.
-interim measures and first mover advantage.
-the relationship between EC antitrust law and national regulatory measures.
-how far cooperation, which would otherwise be considered anticompetitive, is justified when dealing with a monopolist or monopsonist.
-how best to prevent dominant companies, whose facilities their competitors must use, using the information they can obtain to compete with those using the facilities.
-how far standard-setting bodies, with or without governmental participation, fall under Article 85 and when standards are permissible under Article 85(3).
-how to protect intellectual property rights to material which can now be easily reproduced (material and information on the Internet, CDs and CD-ROMs).
-what duties are imposed by Community Law on dominant buyers.
-framework agreements between competitors which outline arrangements for cooperation between them which are not supplemented by specific detailed agreements on particular research and development projects.
-what the rights of third parties are if the parties to an exempted agreement break a condition or obligation imposed on them.
-whether and if so how far traditional collective arrangements for payment of royalties, (performing rights societies, collection societies, etc. ...) should be permitted or are suitable in multimedia.
So since many of these issues arise in new or different ways, they need often to be resolved by reference to first principles of antitrust law and antitrust economics.
Unfortunately, not all EC lawyers understand these issues very well and they have not yet been fully clarified by the Court of Justice. Differences of opinion are understandable, but there is an unnecessary degree of intellectual confusion on some of these issues, partly because some lawyers have their own agendas or their own fixed ideas. Because high technology industries raise new kinds of antitrust problems or old problems in new ways, they place considerable demands on lawyers' fundamental understanding of the basic principles of antitrust law. They also tempt complainants' lawyers to make what are really regulatory policy arguments under the guise of antitrust law.
All the economic issues arising in high tech industries, identified in the Federal Trade Commission Report, have arisen or are certain to arise in Europe. They are however discussed here only insofar as there is European Community caselaw or practice on an issue, or insofar as the situation in Europe is different from that in the USA.
For completeness, I should also mention that new technologies also raise some basic issues of national law, such as the question whether new kinds of media are "broadcasting" and so under the jurisdiction of the German Länder or under German Federal jurisdiction.
II.The case law of the Court which is relevant to high tech industries
In general, the caselaw of the Court of Justice and of the Court of First Instance, at least in the area of EC antitrust law, has not given rise to particular issues concerning the features of high technology industries listed above. One would expect the Court of First Instance to enquire thoroughly into these issues when they arise before it, but there are few indications in the caselaw how they would be decided.
However, it is worth making several comments:
-the Court of Justice showed, in the AKZO judgement on predatory prices, that when it has to deal for the first time with a question of fundamental importance in antitrust law, it does so with great care and thoroughness and reaches results which are generally accepted as sound. The first and second Woodpulp judgements on extraterritorial application of EC antitrust law are also examples of the Court's careful and balanced consideration of fundamental issues ;
-in its judgments on the Commission's general measures under Article 90 on telecommunications terminals and telecommunications services, the Court dealt with many of the basic problems of liberalising those markets in Europe ;