ENCYCLOPEDIA of AGROPHYSICS Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series
About the Editors:
Em. Prof. Jan Gliński, soil scientist, is a full member of the Polish Academy of Sciences. He was Director of the Institute of Agrophysics in Lublin from 1982 to 2003. He was one of the initiators and an active promoter of scientific cooperation between many universities and institutes in Poland and abroad, and organized many international conferences on agrophysics. He has been a member of the ISSS since 1961 and was vice-chairman of the Commission I (Soil Physics) of the ISSS in the period 1986–1990. He is the author or co-author of numerous papers, books, monographs, patents and multilingual dictionaries in the field of agrophysics. He participated actively in eight World ISSS Congresses (1960, 1964, 1974, 1978, 1986,
1990, 1994, and 1998). He serves as the Editor-in-Chief of the journal International Agrophysics (since 1992).
Józef Horabik is Director of the Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, in Lublin, Poland. He holds a M.Sc. degree in physics, a Ph.D. in agricultural engineering, and is a professor of Agronomy. He is the Editor-in-Chief of Acta Agrophysica, an Associate Editor of International Agrophysics, and a member of the Editorial Board of the Polish Journal of Soil Science. He works together with over 20 scientific institutions in Poland and abroad. Over 260 scientific publications have been published to which he has contributed. His scientific interests are: applied physics, agrophysics, physical properties of agromaterials, modelling of mechanics of granular solids and food powders.
Jerzy Lipiec is a Professor of Soil Science and Plant Relations at the Institute of Agrophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Lublin,
Poland. He received his M.Sc. (1969), Ph.D. (1977) and D.Sc. (1983) in Soil Science from the Agricultural University of Lublin. He contributed widely in research activities in various European countries, Japan, US and international projects. He serves on the advisory boards of several scientific journals and has published over 250 scientific papers. He is author or co-author of several chapters in books, including works as Soil Physical
Conditions and Plant Roots (CRC Press).
Editorial Board
Winfried E.H. Blum
Rainer Horn
Institute of Soil Research
University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU)
Peter-Jordan-Str. 82
1190 Vienna
Institute for Plant Nutrition and Soil Science
Christian Albrechts University of Kiel
Olshausenstr. 40
24118 Kiel
Josse De Baerdemaeker
Division of Mechatronics
Biostatistics and Sensors (MeBioS)
Department of Biosystems, K.U. Leuven
Kasteelpark Arenberg 30
3001 Leuven
Krystyna Konstankiewicz
Institute of Agrophysics
Polish Academy of Sciences ul. Doświadczalna 4
20-290 Lublin
Yakov A. Pachepsky
Charles W. Finkl
Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory
Animal and Natural Resource Institute
Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, USDA-ARS
10300 Baltimore Ave, Bldg. 173, BARC-EAST
Beltsville, MD 20705
Department of Geosciences
Florida Atlantic University
Boca Raton, FL 33431
Stanisław Grundas
Institute of Agrophysics
Polish Academy of Sciences ul. Doświadczalna 4
20-290 Lublin
Evgeny V. Shein
Department of Soil Physics
Moscow State University
Moscow 119992
Aims of the Series
The Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series provides comprehensive and authoritative coverage of all the main areas in the Earth Sciences. Each volume comprises a focused and carefully chosen collection of contributions from leading names in the subject, with copious illustrations and reference lists.
These books represent one of the world’s leading resources for the Earth Sciences community. Previous volumes are being updated and new works published so that the volumes will continue to be essential reading for all professional earth scientists, geologists, geophysicists, climatologists, and oceanographers as well as for teachers and students. See the dust jacket of this volume for a current list of titles in the Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Go to to visit the “Earth Sciences Series” on-line.
About the Series Editor
Professor Charles W. Finkl has edited and/or contributed to more than eight volumes in the Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. For the past 25 years he has been the Executive Director of the Coastal Education Research Foundation and Editor-in-Chief of the international Journal of Coastal
Research. In addition to these duties, he is Research Professor at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Florida, USA. He is a graduate of the University of Western Australia (Perth) and previously worked for a wholly owned Australian subsidiary of the International Nickel Company of Canada (INCO). During his career, he acquired field experience in Australia; the Caribbean; South America; SW Pacific islands; southern Africa;
Western Europe; and the Pacific Northwest, Midwest, and Southeast USA.
Founding Series Editor
Professor Rhodes W. Fairbridge (deceased) has edited more than 24 Encyclopedias in the Earth Sciences Series. During his career he has worked as a petroleum geologist in the Middle East, been a WW II intelligence officer in the SW Pacific and led expeditions to the Sahara, Arctic Canada, Arctic
Scandinavia, Brazil and New Guinea. He was Emeritus Professor of Geology at Columbia University and was affiliated with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EARTH SCIENCES SERIES
Institute of Agrophysics
Polish Academy of Sciences
Poland Library of Congress Control Number: 2011924206
ISBN: 978-90-481-3584-4
This publication is available also as:
Electronic publication under ISBN 978-90-481-3585-1 and Print and electronic bundle under ISBN 978-90-481-3586-8
Published by Springer
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Cover illustration: Photo 26814460 from photos.com. © 2011 photos.com
Every effort has been made to contact the copyright holders of the figures and tables which have been reproduced from other sources. Anyone who has not been properly credited is requested to contact the publishers, so that due acknowledgment may be made in subsequent editions.
All Rights Reserved for Contributions on Hardpan Soils: Management; Soil Penetrometers and Penetrability; Stable
Isotopes in Evaluation of Green House Gas Emissions
© Springer Science þ Business Media B.V. 2011
No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Contents
Contributors xxi After Harvest Technology 14
Preface xlv Aggregate Stability
Absorption 1
Aggregation Indices 14
Absorptivity 1
Agricultural Products 14
Agricultural Raw Materials 14
Acoustic Emission 1
Acoustic Tomography 1
Adaptable Tillage 1
Adhesion 1
Agriculture and Food Machinery, Application of Physics for Improving 14
Leszek Mieszkalski
Agroforestry Systems, Effects on Water Balance Andrzej Kędziora in Cropping Zone 26
Adsorption 1
Agrogeology 29
Ward Chesworth
Adsorption Complex 2
Adsorption Energy and Surface Heterogeneity Zofia Sokołowska and Stefan Sokołowski
Agrophysical Objects (Soils, Plants, Agricultural
Jan Gliński in Soils 2
Products, and Foods) 34
Adsorption Energy of Water on Biological Materials 5
Jiří Blahovec
Agrophysical Properties and Processes 35
Jan Gliński, Józef Horabik and Jerzy Lipiec
Advection 7
Agrophysics: Physics Applied to Agriculture 35
Jan Gliński, Józef Horabik and Jerzy Lipiec
Aeration of Agricultural Products 7
Marek Molenda
Air Entry Value 48
Aeration of Soils and Plants 8
Witold Stępniewski
Air Flux (Resistance) in Plants and Agricultural
Products 48
Agnieszka Kaleta and Krzysztof Górnicki
Aerodynamics 13
Entries without author names are glossary terms vi CONTENTS
Air Humidity 49 Biofilms in Soil
Mette Burmølle, Annelise Kjøller and Air Porosity 49 Søren J. Sørensen
Algae, the Potential Source of Energy 49
Magdalena Frąc
Biofilms in the Food Environment 75
Katarzyna Czaczyk and Kamila Myszka
Alkalinity, Physical Effects on Soils 49
Lajos Blaskó
Biogas 78
Biomass 78
Alternative Sources of Energy from Agriculture
Biomass – A European Perspective 52
Piotr Kowalik
Biomass as an Environmentally Benign
Energy Source 78
Keith Openshaw
Alumino-Silicate Clay Minerals 55
Anaerobiosis 55
Biomechanics 88
Biomes 88
Angle of Repose 55
Biospeckle 88
Artur Zdunek
Anion Exchange Capacity 55
Anisotropy of Soil Physical Properties 55
Xinhua Peng
Biota 89
Biotechnology, Physical and Chemical Aspects 89
Zdzisław Targoński
Anoxia and Hypoxia 57
Anthric Saturation 57
Arable Land Use 57
Attenuation 57
Bound Water 90
Boussinesq Equation 90
Bowen Ratio 91
Atterberg Limits 57
Bragg’s Law 91
Available Water (Capacity) 57
Breads: Physical Properties 91
Backscattering 59
Bogusław Usowicz
Renata Rózyło and Janusz Laskowski
Brightness Temperature in Monitoring of Soil
Jerzy Usowicz
Bedrock 60
Wetness 93
Bending Properties of Plants 60
Jiří Blahovec
Bruise 94
Bernoulli’s Principal 62
Buffer Capacity of Soils 94
Mieczysław Hajnos
Binding Force (Plants) 62
Bulk Density of Soils and Impact on Their
Shmuel Assouline
Biochemical Responses to Soil Management
Jan Koper and Małgorzata Brzezińska
Hydraulic Properties 95
Practices 62
Burrow 100
Biocolloids: Transport and Retention in Soils 66
Tammo S. Steenhuis, Verónica L. Morales,
M. Ekrem Cakmak, Anthony E. Salvucci and Wei Zhang
Bypass Flow in Soil 100
Horst H. Gerke CONTENTS vii
Caking 107 Coagulation
Cohesion 138
Caliche (Lime-Pan) 107
Canopy Structure 107
Capillarity 107
Colloids 138
Color Composite (Multiband Photography) 138
Color in Food Evaluation 138
Seong Pal Kang
Capillary Fringe 107
Carbon Losses Under Dryland Conditions,
Félix Moreno, José M. Murillo and Engracia Madejón
Color Indices, Relationship with Soil
Manuel Sánchez-Marañón
Tillage Effects 108
Characteristics 141
Compactibility 145
Carbon Nanotube 110
Compaction of Soil 145
Compensatory Uptake 145
Compressibility 145
Catchment (Catchment Basin) 110
Cation Exchange Capacity 110
Cementation 110
Compression Index 145
Compression Point 145
Compression Test, Triaxial 145
Cereals, Evaluation of Utility Values 110
Dariusz Dziki and Janusz Laskowski
Chemical Imaging in Agriculture 113
Adam Paweł Kuczyński
Conditioners, Effect on Soil Physical Properties 145
Ryszard Dębicki
Chemical Time Bomb, Relation to Soil Physical
Conditions 116
Halina Smal
Conductivity 148
Chisel 117
Cone Index 148
Clay Minerals and Organo-Mineral Associates 117
Tatiana Victorovna Alekseeva
Confined Compression Test 148
Consistency 148
Claypan and its Environmental Effects 122
Stephen H. Anderson
Consolidation 148
Cleavage Plane 125
Contact Area of Agricultural Tyres, Estimation 148
Etienne Diserens and Abdallah Alaoui
Climate Change: Environmental Effects 125
Miroslav Kutílek
Continuity Equation 153
Climate Risk 135
Contour-Furrow Irrigation 153
Climate Stress Mitigation Tillage 135
Clod 135
Controlled Traffic Farming 153
Thomas Anken and Martin Holpp
Conventional Tillage 155
Clusters in Soils 135
David L. Pinskiy
Coulomb’s Law 155
Entries without author names are glossary terms viii CONTENTS
Coupled Heat and Water Transfer in Soil 155 Denitrification
Joshua L. Heitman and Robert Horton
Density 200
Cracking in Soils 162
Pascal Boivin
Desertification: Indicators and Thresholds 200
Max Kuderna and Adam Zsolnay
Crop Emergence, the Impact of Mechanical
W. R. Whalley and W. E. Finch-Savage
Impedance 163
Detachment 207
Deterministic Model 207
Dew Point 207
Crop Responses to Soil Physical Conditions 167
Jerzy Lipiec, Artur Nosalewicz and Jacek Pietrusiewicz
Dielectric Loss Tangent 207
Crop Rotation 176
Dielectric Properties of Agricultural Products 207
Stuart O. Nelson and Samir Trabelsi
Crop Water Use Efficiency 176
Crop Yield Losses Reduction at Harvest, from
Bogusław Szot, Mieczysław Szpryngiel and Jerzy Tys
Diffuse Double Layer (DDL) 213
Md. Abdul Mojid
Research to Adoption 176
Diffusion in Soils 214
Witold Stępniewski, Henryk Sobczuk and Marcin Widomski
Cropping Systems, Effects on Soil Physical
Properties 180
Stephen H. Anderson
Dilatancy 220
Crushing Strength 184
Crust 184
Discharge 220
Dispersion 220
Dispersivity 220
Cultivation Under Screens, Aerodynamics Josef Tanny of Boundary Layers 185
Diurnal Strains in Plants 220
Paweł Kojs and Tomasz Rusin
Cumulative Infiltration 187
Cutan 187
DNA in Soils: Mobility by Capillarity 224
Maria Teresa Ceccherini and Giacomo Pietramellara
Cyclic Compressibility 187
Darcy’s Law 189
Double Layer 228
Drainage 228
Databases on Physical Properties of Plants and Agnieszka Kaleta and Krzysztof Górnicki
Agricultural Products 189
Drip Irrigation 228
Drought 228
Databases of Soil Physical and Hydraulic
Attila Nemes
Properties 194
Drought Stress, Effect on Soil Mechanical
Impedance and Root (Crop) Growth 228
W. R. Whalley and L. J. Clark
Deflation 200
Drying of Agricultural Products 231
Deflocculation 200 Digvir S. Jayas and Chandra B. Singh
Degradation of Soil 200 Duripan CONTENTS ix
Dynamic Load 232 Empirical Model
Energetically Homogenous (Heterogenous)
Earthworms as Ecosystem Engineers 233
Patrick Lavelle
Surface 270
Energy Balance of Ecosystems 270
Andrzej Kędziora
Ecohydrology 235
Maciej Zalewski
Energy Balance of a Field 274
Enthalpy 274
Ecosystem 237
Effective Rainfall 237
Elasticity 237
Entropy 274
Environmental Conserving Tillage 274
Enzyme 274
Elastoplasticity 237
Electrical Conductivity 237
Enzymes in Soils 274
Małgorzata Brzezińska
Electrical Double Layer (Diffuse Layer,
Double Layer) 237
Erodibility of Soil 275
Erosion 275
Electrical Permeability 237
Electrical Properties of Agricultural Products 237
Zuzana Hlaváčová
Erosivity 275
Electrical Properties of Soils 242
Shmulik P. Friedman
Estimation of Quartz Content in Mineral Soils 275
Vlodek R. Tarnawski, Toshihiko Momose,
Wey H. Leong and David J. W. Piper
Electrical Resistivity 255
Evaporation 280
Electrical Resistivity to Assess Soil Properties 256
Guy Richard, Maud Séger, Arlène Besson and Isabelle Cousin
Evapotranspiration 280
Viliam Novák
Electrical Susceptibility 260
Exchange Complex 284
Exchangeable Ions 284
Electrochemical Measurements in Soils 260
Andrzej Bieganowski and Jolanta Cieśla
Extrusion, Effect on Physical and Chemical
Leszek Mościcki
Electrokinetic (Zeta) Potential of Soils 264
Mieczysław Hajnos and Jolanta Cieśla
Properties 284
Electromagnetic Field 267
Exudate, Root 287
Fabric 289
Electromagnetic Fields, Impact on Seed
Germination and Plant Growth 267
Stanisław Pietruszewski
Failure 289
Elutriation 269
Eluviation 270
Emissivity 270
Fatigue Strength 289
Fats: Rheological Characteristics 289
Fernanda Peyronel, Thamara Laredo and Alejandro G. Marangoni
Entries without author names are glossary terms xCONTENTS
Fertilizers (Mineral, Organic), Effect on Soil
Kuntal Hati and Kalikinkar Bandyoopadhay
Funnel Flow 321
Physical Properties 296
Furrow 321
Furrow Erosion 321
Furrow Irrigation 321
Gas Exchange In Soils 323
Gases Sink 323
Fick’s Law 299
Field Water Capacity 299
Karl Vanderlinden and Juan V. Giráldez
Fingering 300
Firmness 300
Geologic Erosion 323
Geostatistics 323
Fissures 300
Flexural Strength 301
Gibbs Free Energy 323
Flocculation and Dispersion Phenomena in Soils 301
Emil Chibowski
Grain Physics 323
Stanisław Grundas, Agnieszka Nawrocka and Josef Pecen
Flooding, Effects on Soil Structure 304
Miguel A. Taboada, Patricia L. Fernández and Maria F. Varela
Grains, Aerodynamic and Geometric Features 327
Bronisława Barbara Kram
Flow 308
Grass Fibers, Physical Properties 333
Majda Sfiligoj Smole and Silvo Hribernik
Flowability 308
Fluvial Erosion 308
Flux 308
Gravimetric Water Content 334
Gravitational Potential 334
Gravity Head (Gravity Potential) 334
Food Freezing 308
Food Machinery 308
Fourier’s Law 308
Grazing-Induced Changes of Soil Mechanical Julia Krümmelbein and Hydraulic Properties 334
Greenhouse, Climate Control 338
Istvan Farkas
Fractal Analysis in Agrophysics 309
Yakov Pachepsky, Fernando San José Martínez and Miguel Angel Martín
Greenhouse Effect 339
Greenhouse Gas Fluxes: Effects of Physical
Conditions 339
Ryusuke Hatano
Fracture 315
Fragipan 315
Friction 316
Greenhouse Gases Sink in Soils 351
Teresa Włodarczyk
Friction Phenomena in Soils 316
Rainer Horn
Ground-Penetrating Radar, Soil Exploration 354
Jim Doolittle
Frozen Foods 318
Groundwater 355
Fruits, Mechanical Properties and Bruise
Susceptibility 318
Margarita Ruiz-Altisent and Guillermo P. Moreda
Gully (Linear) Erosion 355
Hardening 357 CONTENTS xi
357 Hydrophobicity of Soil 378
Paul D. Hallett, Jörg Bachmann, Henryk Czachor,
Emilia Urbanek and Bin Zhang
Warren J. Busscher
Hardpan Soils: Management 357
Hypobaric Storage 384
Hardsetting Soils: Physical Properties 360
Neyde Fabíola Balarezo Giarola, Herdjania Veras de Lima and Alvaro Pires da Silva
Hysteresis in Foods 384
Matthew Caurie
Cezary Sławiński
Hysteresis in Soil 385
Harvest Technology 364
Heat Advection 364
Heat Balance 364
Ice Erosion (Glacial Erosion, Thermal Erosion) 387
Illuviation 387
Heat Capacity 364
Image Analysis in Agrophysics 387
Magnus Persson
Heat Diffusion 364
Imbibition 390
Heat of Condensation 364
Heat of Sublimation 364
Heat of Vaporization 364
Heat of Wetting 364
Henry’s Law 364
Indicator Plants 390
Infiltrability 390
Infiltration Capacity 390
Infiltration in Soils 390
Miroslav Kutílek
Insolation 393
Hooke’s Law 364
Institute of Agrophysics in Lublin: Progress in
Agrophysics 393
Józef Horabik and Grzegorz Józefaciuk
Horticulture Substrates, Structure and Anna Słowińska-Jurkiewicz and Monika Jaroszuk-Sierocińska
Physical Properties 364
Institute of Agrophysics in Saint-Petersburg:
Igor B. Uskov and Victor P. Yakushev
Roots of Agrophysics 396
Humus 367
Hydraulic Diffusivity 367
Hydraulic Gradient 368
Hydraulic Head 368
Integrated Drainage 399
Interception 399
Interflow 400
Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils 368
Martinus Th. van Genuchten and Yakov Pachepsky
Internal Drainage 400
Interrill Erosion 400
Hydrodynamic Dispersion 376
Intersecting Surfaces Approach (Isa) 400
Intrinsic Permeability 400
Ion Exchange 400
Hydropedological Processes in Soils 376
Svatopluk Matula
Hydrophobicity 378
Entries without author names are glossary terms xii CONTENTS
Ion Hydration 400 Liquid Limit (Upper Plastic Limit, Atterberg
Limit) 428
Irrigation and Drainage, Advantages and Lajos Blaskó
Disadvantages 400 Loading
Lodging of Crops 428
Irrigation Water Use Efficiency 402
Lysimeters: A Tool for Measurements of Johann Fank
Irrigation with Treated Wastewater, Effects on
Guy J. Levy
Soil Fluxes 428
Soil Structure 403
Machine Vision 433
Isoelectric Point 407
Isotopes 407
Machine Vision in Agriculture 433
John Billingsley
Isotropy and Anisotropy in Agricultural Products Józef Horabik and Marek Molenda
Macropore Flow 436
and Foods 407
Magnetic Properties of Soils 436
Andrey Alekseev
Kernel 411
Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Soil Science 439
Andreas Pohlmeier
Kinematic Viscosity 411
Kirchhoff’s Laws 411
Kriging 411
Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water, Effects on Crops 444
Basant Maheshwari and Harsharn Grewal
Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Soils 413
Henryk Czachor
Management Effects on Soil Properties and Functions 447
Rainer Horn
Laminar Flow 413
Land Reclamation 414
Mapping of Soil Physical Properties 455
Jan Gliński and Janusz Ostrowski
414 Matric Potential 460
Landslide 414 Matrix of the Soil
Laplace Equation 414 Measurements Non-Destructive
Latent Heat 414
Mechanical Impacts at Harvest and After Harvest
Zbigniew Ślipek and Jarosław Frączek
Technologies 460
Layered Soils, Water and Solute Transport 414
H. M. Selim
Mechanical Resilience of Degraded Soils 464
Heiner Fleige
Leaching of Chemicals in Relation to
Soil Structure 421
Tom M. Addiscott
Membranes, Role in Water Transport in the 424 Marian Kargol
Soil–Root–Xylem System 465
Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR)
Light Interception by Plant Canopies
Pierre Dutilleul
424 Microbes and Soil Structure 470
Vadakattu Gupta
Liming, Effects on Soil Properties
425 Microbes, Habitat Space, and Transport in Soil
Tadeusz Filipek
Karl Ritz CONTENTS xiii
Microcosm 475 Neural Networks in the Modeling of Drying Processes 509
Istvan Farkas
Micro-Irrigation 475
Nitrification 511
Microstructure of Plant Tissue 476
Krystyna Konstankiewicz
Nondestructive Measurements in Fruits 511
Mineral Fertilizers 481
Mineralisation 481
Francisco J. García-Ramos
Nondestructive Measurements in Soil 513
Wojciech M. Skierucha
Mineral–Organic–Microbial Interactions 481
Małgorzata Dąbek-Szreniawska and Eugene Balashov
Noninvasive Quantification of 3D Pore Space
Structures in Soils 516
Stephan Peth
Mire 483
Non-Limiting Water Range (NLWR) 520
Non-Thermal Technologies 520
Normal Stress 520
Modeling the Thermal Conductivity of Frozen Foods 483
Vlodek R. Tarnawski, Wey H. Leong and Toshihiko Momose
Modulus of Elasticity (Young’s Modulus) 489
Modulus of Rigidity 489
Numerical Methods (Model) 520
Ohm’s Law 521
Mohre Circle of Stress 489
Online Measurement of Selected Soil Physical
Abdul Mounem Mouazen
Properties 521
Monitoring Physical Conditions in Agriculture and Environment 489
Wojciech M. Skierucha
Organic Carbon in Soil 523
Mualem Equation 492
Mulching 492
Organic Dusts, Electrostatic Properties 523
Wiktor Pietrzyk and Marek Horyński
Organic Farming, Effect on the Soil Physical
Apostolos Papadopoulos
Mulching, Effects on Soil Physical Properties 492
Antonio Jordán, Lorena M. Zavala and Miriam Muñoz-Rojas
Environment 526
Organic Fertilizers 528
Organic Matter 528
Munsell Color System 496
Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Osmotic Stress 496
Juan M. Ruiz-Lozano
Organic Matter, Effects on Soil Physical
Rattan Lal
Properties and Processes 528
Nanomaterials in Soil and Food Analysis 499
Subramanian Viswanathan
Ornamental Plants, Physical Properties 534
Paweł Szot
Nature Conservation Management 503
Tadeusz J. Chmielewski
Ortstein, Physical Properties 535
Jacek Chodorowski
Neural Networks in Agrophysics 505
Krzysztof Lamorski
Entries without author names are glossary terms xiv CONTENTS
535 Perched Groundwater 561
Osmotic Potential 536
Overburden Pressure 536
Percolation 561
Permafrost 561
Overland Flow 536
Elias Dimitriou
Permanent Charge 561
Permeability 561
Photosynthesis 561
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions in the Zofia Stępniewska
Environment 536
Physical Degradation of Soils, Risks and Threats 562
Oxygenology 541
Witold Stępniewski
Winfried E. H. Blum
Physical Dimensions and Units Use in Agriculture 563
Wojciech Skierucha, Marcin Widomski,
Witold Stępniewski and Bogusław Usowicz
Packing Density 543
Pan 543
Physical Phenomena and Properties Important for
Parent Material and Soil Physical Properties 543
Andrzej Mocek and Wojciech Owczarzak
Storage of Agricultural Products 567
Marek Molenda and Józef Horabik
Partial Pressure 547
Particle Density 547
Physical Processes 573
Physical Properties 573
Particle Film Technology 547
Michael Glenn
Physical Properties as Indicators of Food Quality 573
Martin G. Scanlon
Particle-Size Distribution 548
Particulate Organic Matter 548 pe 548
Physical Properties of Raw Materials and Bohdan Dobrzański, Jr. and Rafał Rybczyński
Agricultural Products 579
Physical Properties for Soil Classification 589
Johan Bouma
Peatlands: Environmental Functions 548
Tadeusz J. Chmielewski and Danuta Urban
Physical Protection of Organic Carbon in Soil
Tiphaine Chevallier
Aggregates 592
Peats and Peatlands, Physical Properties 551
Lech Wojciech Szajdak, Jan Szatyłowicz and Raimo Kõlli
Physical Quality, Soil 595
Ped 555
Physical (Mechanical) Weathering of Soil Parent
Material 595
Stefan Skiba
Pedon 555
Pedotransfer Functions 556
Yakov Pachepsky and Martinus Th. van Genuchten
Physico-Chemical Methods for Remediation of Toshko Raytchev and Svetla Rousseva
Contaminated Soils 596
Penetrability 561
Penetration Resistance 561
Penman Equation 561
Physics of Near Ground Atmosphere 597