Documenting Your Sources: Parenthetical Documentation

Documenting Your Sources: Parenthetical Documentation


Avoiding Plagiarism and

Documenting Your Sources: Parenthetical Documentation

Avoiding Plagiarism

When you make research your own, your writing will sound like you. That is exactly what you want. But what you don’t want is to mislead people into thinking that all these ideas are your own. If you do, you may be guilty of ______--- the act of presenting someone else’s ideas as your own. Plagiarism is ______, even when it is unintentional. Professional journalists and writers have lost their jobs, and certainly their credibility, because they plagiarized.

In ______, a researcher repeats the exact words of a source without giving the necessary credit. ______occurs when a researcher says basically the same thing as an original source with just a few words changed. In ______, a researcher uses only a source’s key words or phrases as his or her own without giving credit.

You ______it to your sources, your readers, and yourself to give credit for the ideas you use. To avoid plagiarism when you paraphrase, ______from the source as you take notes on it. After you have written your paraphrase, ______the source to make sure that you have used your ______.

Documenting Your Sources: Parenthetical Documentation

______ is the information in the paper that tells what sources you used.

The method of documentation most widely used today is called ______.

To acknowledge a source with parenthetical documentation, enclose a brief reference in parentheses. The reference, which is called a ______, usually consists of an author’s last name and a page number. The end punctuation mark should be placed outside the parentheses.

Example: The Titanic was four city blocks long and eleven stories high (Baldwin 28).

The process of placing the citation in your paper is called ______.

A parenthetical citation contains just enough information to help the reader locate the source in the ______ list at the end of your paper. A ______is a complete record of the sources referred to in the paper in other words a Works Cited list ______of the parenthetical citations used in the text of your paper. ______will construct your Works Cited list.


When do you use parenthetical documentation?

Use the parenthetical documentation ______time you use information from a source. Every time you paraphrase, quote, or summarize a source.

So, how do I paraphrase, quote and summarize????

 A. Summary: used to record the ______of large amounts of information

 1. It is used to record only the general idea of ______(up to two pages) in your ______.

 2. The summary ______.

 B. Paraphrase: used to transfer the ______ of the original passage to a note card, using your own words

 1. You are paraphrasing improperly if you:

 a. Retain the sentence pattern of the original and simply ______the ______.

 b. Use more than ______in succession from the original source.

 c. ______the meaning of the original passage.

 2. Do not ______word for word: rather restate idea by idea

 3. Your paraphrase ______.

Direct Quotation: According to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 2nd Ed., “Quote only words, phrases, lines, and passages that are particularly ______, ______, unusual, or apt, and keep all quotations as ______as possible” (56).

 All direct quotations ______.

 1. Enclose all quotations in ______marks

 2. Always copy the quotation ______as it appears in the original source. Copy spelling, internal punctuation, and capitalization, even if the original contains ______.

 3. All quotations must be ______. Never drop a quotation into a sentence or paragraph without a proper lead-in.

Here’s How: Guidelines for Parenthetical Documentation

1. Work with an ______and ______: Give the author’s last

name and the page number in parentheses. The Titanic was four city blocks long and eleven stories high (Baldwin 28).

2. Work with ______and ______: Give

the title (or a shortened version of it) and the page number. (Chicago Manual 126)

3. Work with an ______and NO ______: Give the author’s last name(s) in parentheses. (Smith). Or (Brown and Little).

4. Work with a ______and No ______: Give the title (or a shortened version of it). (Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome).