Document Based Question #2 (______/400 points)
After the Civil War, the United States was faced with the extraordinary task of Reconstruction and dealing with about four million newly freed slaves.
Task: Write a 5 paragraph essay that answers the following question:
- Was Reconstruction successful?
- Complete the Brainstorm Paper (-20 if missing)
- Answer the Documents (-10 for each inaccurate/incomplete analysis of a document)
- Create APA Parenthetical Citations (- 5 for each one missing)
- Create a Graphic Organizer (100 points)
- Write the essay ( 300 points)
-highlight parenthetical citations in essay
DO NOT USE “I”- WILL RESULT IN A ZEROOverall Qualities / Argument / Organization / Vocabulary / Fluency / Mechanics / DBQ Specific Errors
100% / Demonstrates clear and consistent mastery, although it may have a few minor errors / - Effective and insightful point of view or position that directly answers the question in the thesis
- Outstanding critical thinking
- Uses clearly appropriate examples, reasons, and other evidence for support / - Well organized and clearly focused
- demonstrates clear coherence and smooth progression of ideas / - Exhibits skillful use of language
- Uses a variety of accurate and apt vocabulary / - Meaningful variety in sentence structure / - Free of Errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics
90% / Demonstrates reasonably consistent mastery, although it will have occasional errors or lapses in quality / - Effectively develops a point of view or position that directly answers the questions in the thesis
- strong critical thinking
- Generally uses appropriate examples, reasons, and evidence for support / - Well organized and focused
- Demonstrates coherence and progression of ideas / - Exhibits facility in the use of language
- Uses appropriate vocabulary / - Variety in sentence structure / - Generally free of errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics / - Thesis argument is not consistently supported in an explicit way
80% / Demonstrates adequate mastery, although it will have lapses in quality / - Develops a point of view or position that directly answers the question in the thesis
- Demonstrates competent critical thinking
- Uses adequate examples, reasons, and other evidence for support / - Generally organized and focused
- Demonstrates some coherence and progression of ideas / - Exhibits adequate but inconsistent facility in the use of language
- Uses generally appropriate vocabulary / - Variety in sentence structure / - Has some errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics / - Thesis argument is not clearly supported in an explicit way
70% / Demonstrates developing mastery, and is marked by ONE OR MORE weaknesses / - Develops a point of view or position that directly answers the question in the thesis
- Demonstrates some critical thinking, but may do inconsistently
- May use inadequate examples, reasons, or other evidence for support / - Limited in organization or focus
- May demonstrate some lapses in coherence or progression of ideas / - Developing facility in the use of language
-Sometimes uses weak vocabulary or inappropriate word choices / - Lacks variety
- demonstrates problems in sentence structure / - Contains an accumulation of errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics / - Does not contain enough support from documents or outside information
50% / Demonstrates little master, and is flawed by ONE OR MORE weaknesses / - Develops a point of view or position that is vague or seriously limited in the thesis
- Demonstrates weak critical thinking
Provides inappropriate or insufficient examples, reasons, or other evidence for support / - Poorly organized and/or focused
- Demonstrates serious problems with coherence or progression of ideas / - Displays very little facility in the use of language
- Uses very limited vocabulary or incorrect word choice / - Frequent problems in sentence structure / - Contains errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics so serious that meaning is distorted / - Does not include 5 complete paragraphs
Brainstorm (list at least 10 things you know about the topic):
Part I: Examine each document carefully and answer the question or questions that follow in complete sentences.
Document A: The Reconstruction Amendments
Source: US Constitution
Section 1. neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment of a crime wherof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist in the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws….
Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Section 2 The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
A1. How do these amendments help African Americans?
A2. What level of government has the power to enforce these Amendments?
Document B: Excerpt from Carpetbagger from Vermont: The Autobiography of Marshall Harvey Twitchell
I then commenced a study of my instructions concerning the parish and people around me. My duty was to inform both black and white of their changed relations from master and slave to employer and employee, giving them the additional information that it was the order of the government that old master and old slave should remain where they had been [and] work as usual in the harvesting of the crop, at which time I would fix the pay of the ex-slave in case he and his former master did not agree about the amount. I expected all to obey and should not hesitate to enforce obedience from both employer and employee. Corporal punishment must not be restored by the planters, but all cases requiring extreme measures must be reported to me for settlement.
As one of the youngest men of the convention, I took an active part only upon the question that the school moneys of the state should be expended for the education of the children and that the system heretofore practised, of allowing the parents to deduct the school allowance from their taxes and then educate their children or not, should be done away with. I was very much surprised when I returned home to find that this act had made me very unpopular with the white people, who rightly looked upon it as a distinctly Northern idea.
B1. What was Marshall Twitchell trying to do in the South?
B2. Why did these actions upset White people? Did any of these actions upset Freedmen as well?
C1. What is trying to be accomplished in this photo?
Document D: Sharecrop Contract, 1882
To every one applying to rent land upon shares, the following conditions must be read, and agreed to.
To every 30 and 35 acres, I agree to furnish the team, plow, and farming implements, except cotton planters, and I do not agree to furnish a cart to every cropper. The croppers are to have half of the cotton, corn, and fodder (and peas and pumpkins and potatoes if any are planted) if the following conditions are complied with, but-if not-they are to have only two-fifths (2/5). Croppers are to have no part or interest in the cotton seed raised from the crop planted and worked by them.... All must work under my direction. All plantation work to be done by the croppers. My part of the crop to be housed by them, and the fodder and oats to be hauled and put in the house. All the cotton must be topped about 1st August. If any cropper fails from any cause to save all the fodder from his crop, I am to have enough fodder to make it equal to one-half of the whole if the whole amount of fodder had been saved.
...No cropper is to work off the plantation when there is any work to be done on the land he has rented, or when his work is needed by me or other croppers.
...Every cropper must feed or have fed, the team he works, Saturday nights, Sundays, and every morning before going to work, beginning to feed his team (morning, noon, and night every day in the week) on the day he rents and feeding it to including the 31st day of December. ...for every time he so fails he must pay me five cents.
The sale of every cropper's part of the cotton to be made by me when and where I choose to sell, and after deducting all they owe me and all sums that I may be responsible for on their accounts, to pay them their half of the net proceeds. Work of every description, particularly the work on fences and ditches, to be done to my satisfaction, and must be done over until I am satisfied that it is done as it should be.
D1. How were sharecroppers not free?
Document E:Time Period / # of African Americans elected into US Senate / # of African Americans elected into the US House of Representatives
1860-1879 / 2 / 14
1880-1899 / 0 / 6
1900-1919 / 0 / 0
1920-1939 / 0 / 2
1940-1959 / 0 / 4
E1. Compare and contrast the # of African Americans elected during and after Reconstruction.
Document F: The New South
Source:: Stanley K. Schultz, http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture02.html
“…After the Civil War a major undertaking was the reconstruction of Southern railroads, ports, roads, and communication systems. Federal grant money supported this reconstruction. Between 1865 and the early 1870s, over 8,000 miles of new railroad track were laid. By the end of the 1880s, the South had one of the best railroad systems not just in the United States, but in the world….
“…In the 1870s a "cotton crusade" began. Initial attempts to encourage construction of Southern mills with Southern finance capital gave way to a mill industry (1880 - 160 mills; 1900 - 400+mills), largely controlled by outside (Northeastern United States and foreign) capitalists….”
“…Southerners tapped rich coal and iron ore reserves so effectively that by 1900, the South led the world in coal production. At the same time, they fostered (1880-1900) tremendous growth in iron and steel mills. Initial financing of the steel and iron industries came from Southern sources, but by 1900, foreign investors and Northerners such as Andrew Carnegie largely controlled these industries.
“…Traditionally tobacco was grown but seldom processed in the South. In the late 1870s and early 1880s, however, Southern capitalists established prosperous tobacco factories. By 1900, tobacco processing was a major industry. As was the case with cotton and iron/steel, outside capitalists controlled the industry.”
F1. What were the biggest industries of the post Civil War South?
F2. How was the economy of the New South different than the antebellum South?
G1. Why were Blacks attacked with violence during Reconstruction?
Document H: W.E.B. DuBois, Black Reconstruction in America
"But the decisive influence was the systematic and overwhelming economic pressure. Negroes who wanted work must not dabble in politics. Negroes who wanted to increase their income must not agitate the Negro problem. . . in order to earn a living, the American Negro was compelled to give up his political power."
H1. According to DuBois, why did freedmen stop voting?
Document I: Jim Crow Laws from various states 1875-1900s:
- Restaurants- It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant or other place for the serving of food in the city, at which white and colored people are served in the same room, unless such white and colored persons are effectual separated by a solid partition extending from the floor upward to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless a separate entrance from the street is provided for each compartment. Alabama
- Cohabitation- Any Negro man and white woman, or any white man and Negro woman, who are not married to each other, who shall habitually live in and occupy in the nighttime the same room shall each be punished by imprisonment not exceeding twelve (12) months, or by fine not exceeding five hundred ($500.00) dollars. Florida
- Parks- It shall be unlawful for colored people to frequent any park owned or maintained by the city for the benefit, use and enjoyment of white persons...and unlawful for any white person to frequent any park owned or maintained by the city for the use and benefit of colored persons. Georgia
- Intermarriage- All marriages between a white person and a Negro, or between a white person and a person of Negro descent, to the third generation,…are forever prohibited, and shall be void. Maryland
- Promotion of Equality- Any person...who shall be guilty of printing, publishing or circulating printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and Negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine or not exceeding five hundred (500.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both. Mississippi
- Education- Separate rooms [shall] be provided for the teaching of pupils of African descent, and [when] said rooms are so provided, such pupils may not be admitted to the school rooms occupied and used by pupils of Caucasian or other descent. New Mexico
I1. How did Jim Crow impact the lives of African Americans in the South?
- Historical Context
II.BodyParagraph Topic / Document information
(requires use of ½ +1) / Outside Information
(need 3 total)
- Rewrite thesis in your own words
- Make a connection with future events or reconnect with opener