as used in the 1940s, referred to modern jazz, which became popular in the early 1940s. The hipster adopted the lifestyle of the jazz musician, including some or all of the following: manner of dress, slang terminology, use of cannabis and other drugs, relaxed attitude, sarcastic humor, self-imposed poverty, and relaxed sexual codes. Early hipsters were generally white youths adopting many of the ways of urban blacks of the time, but later hipsters often copied the early ones without knowing the origins of the culture.


a style or movement characterized by the adoption of aggressively unconventional and often bizarre or shocking clothing, hairstyles, makeup, etc., and the defiance of social norms of behavior, usually associated with punk rock musicians and fans.

defiance of – odpor k

(music, ideologies, fashion, art, dance, film, lifestyle and community)


Member of an international youth subculture characterized by hair and dress styles evoking aggression and physical toughness. Typical skinhead style includes shaved heads, combat boots, tattoos, and prominent body piercings. Skinheads first appeared in working-class areas of London in the 1960s; during the 1970s and '80s the skinhead phenomenon spread to Australia, North America, and western Europe. In many countries, skinheads are regarded as extreme right-wing nationalists who espouse anti-Semitic and other racist views and engage in violent attacks on immigrants and racial minorities. This characterization, however, does not apply to all members of the subculture.

evoke –vzbuzovat

toughness – tvrdost, drsnost

right-wing – pravicový

espouse – zastávat

to apply – týkat se, aplikovat na


The hippiesubculture was originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the early 1960s and spread around the world. The word hippiederives fromhipster, and was initially used to describe beatniks who had moved into San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district. These people inherited the countercultural values of the Beat Generation, created their own communities, listened to psychedelic rock, embraced the sexual revolution, and used drugs such as cannabis and LSD to explore alternative states of consciousness.

derives from – je odvozeno od

embrace – přijímat

consciousness – mysl


Vegetarianism is the practice of a diet that excludesmeat (including game and slaughter by-products), fish (including shellfish and other sea animals) and poultry. There are several variants of the diet, some of which also exclude eggs and/or some products produced from animal labour such as dairy products and honey.

exclude – vylučovat

game – zvěřina

shellfish – měkýši, korýši

poultry – drůbež

dairy products – mléčné výrobky