Volume 1, Issue 1, June 2015

Improving Packet Transmission Rate of Ad hoc Network by Battery Power Awareness

Anmol Suryavanshi1, Nitesh Rastogi2

Assistant professor, Dept.Of CSE, Gangamai College of Engineering, Nagaon, Maharashtra, India1

Assistant professor, Dept. Of CSE, Jagadguru Dattatray College of Technology,Indore,M.P., India2

ABSTRACT— Energy efficient routing scheme deals with efficient utilization of energy resources. By controlling the early depletion of the battery, adjust the power to decide the proper power level of a node and incorporate the low power strategies into the protocols used in various layers of protocol stack. Ad hoc wireless networks are power constrained since nodes operate with limited battery energy. if some nodes die early due to lack of energy, they cannot communicate with each other. Therefore, inordinate consumption of nodes’ energy should be prevented. In fact, nodes residual energy utilization after threshold should be increase the energy utilization of networks. Here we proposed a new energy utilization scheme in Manet. In this scheme we set a threshold value for energy consumption by mobile nodes in our network. If the energy level of any node/s in the network reaches to threshold level that are participated in communication means it will be active in the network. But here we apply one condition, number of nodes that having a energy remaining after threshold value is also utilized in communication. According to our proposed approach a new energy aware efficient routing to make aware our network about the energy of nodes by that we remove the problem of suddenly loss of session to recognize the unfaithful nodes and extend the life cycle of network.

KEYWORDS- MANETs, Routing Protocol, Energy Consumption, protocol stack, mobile nodes


A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) consists of a set of mobile hosts that carry out basic networking functions like packet forwarding, routing, and service discovery without the help of an established infrastructure. Nodes of an ad hoc network rely on one another in forwarding a packet to its destination, due to the limited range of each mobile host‟s wireless transmissions. An ad hoc network uses no centralized administration. This ensures that the network will not cease functioning just because one of the mobile nodes moves out of the range of the others. Nodes should be able to enter and leave the network as they wish. Because of the limited transmitter range of the nodes, multiple hops are generally needed to reach other nodes. Fig 1.1 A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) The topology of ad hoc networks varies with time as nodes move, join or leave the network. This topological instability requires a routing protocol to run on each node to create and maintain routes among the nodes.


Several approaches have been developed to address the energy efficiency issues in Ad-Hoc Networks. These techniques differ in the methodology as well as the layer of the protocol stack at which they function [3]. Algorithms belonging to the category may operate at the MAC layer level, Network layer level, or in between. The following section covers the most significant algorithms that belong to these categories. Power-Aware Routing- Authors explore power-aware metrics to use with Routing Protocols on top of their MAC power savings protocol, PAMAS [4]. They indicate that the strategy followed by the different Routing Protocols that are not power conscious would lead to fast depletion of battery power and hence quick degradation of the Network operation. We have already discussed these metrics. The authors implemented the first and fourth metrics (minimize energy consumed per packet and minimize cost per packet, respectively). In their simulations, the authors used sparsely populated Networks and they did not consider mobility in their simulations.


The nodes in an ad hoc network are constrained by battery power for their operation. To route a packet from a source to a destination involves a sufficient number of intermediate nodes. Hence, battery power of a node is a precious resource that must be used efficiently in order to avoid early termination of a node or a network. Thus, energy aware routing is an important issue in such networks. Power aware routing are the major means of increasing the life of a node. The lifetime of a network is usually defined according to the following criteria:

  • The time until the first node burns out its entire battery budget;
  • The time until a certain proportion of the nodes fails; and
  • The time until network partitioning occurs.
  • The communication related power consumption is mainly due to transmit-receive module present in the nodes.

Whenever a node remains active, that is, during transmission or reception of a packet, energy gets consumed. Even when the node is not actively participating in communication, but is in the listening mode waiting for the packets, the battery keeps discharging. The computation power refers to the power spent in calculations that take place in the nodes during routing and power adjustments. A. Energy Awareness Network partitioning interrupts communication sessions and can be caused by node movement or by node failure due to energy depletion. Whereas the former cannot be controlled by the routing protocol, the latter can be avoided through appropriate routing decisions. Operational lifetime is therefore defined in this survey as the time until network partitioning occurs due to battery outage. A few reasons for energy deterioration in MANETs are limited energy of the nodes, difficulties in replacing the batteries, lack of central coordination, constraints on the Battery source, selection of optimum transmission power, and channel utilization.


Ad hoc wireless networks are power constrained since nodes operate with limited battery energy. If some nodes die early due to lack of energy, they cannot communicate with each other. This presents a globalproblem that affects parts of the network or the whole network depending on the case. If node 7 value reaches to threshold level now at that time it generate a energy alert message only important packets are delivered though node 7 till their energy level reaches to minimum threshold level. Then route update function will call. A. Description of Proposed Algorithm.

Proposed Connection Establishment and Route Update Algorithm & with Threshold Value and Minimum Threshold value.

Initial energy = E (Suppose E = 100) Threshold energy = Ɵ1 (20% of X) //for alert the energy level.

Minimum threshold energy = Ɵ2 (5% of E) // for recharge If {(EƟ1 ) & (radio range from source to next hop < 250m ) & (next hop == destination)}

Then {Establish connection from source to destination} Else

{No connection establishment}

If {(E ≤ Ɵ1)} { nodes will broadcast the message in network only important packets are forward & those who already establish connection transfer their data before energy level reaches to minimum threshold level }

3) If{(E == Ɵ2)} { Node will be in charging mode & route will update }

4) If{( node energy charge up == 100) & ( radio range from source to next hop ≤ 250m)} { Go to step 1 }

End The maximize the lifetime of network nodes and hence the network operation as a whole. The main goals of the One portion of the cycle is a asleep or minimum threshold level period while the other portion is a wakeup period. While awake, a node can communicate normally with other nodes as per the routing protocol that is in use. The length of the mandatory wakeup period affects the connectivity of the network as nodes establish their knowledge of the current neighbours and network conditions during this period.


  • After the study and demonstrate and simulation of suggest approach following points will gets as results.
  • Efficient utilization of battery power of nodes which improve lifetime of network.
  • Make continue data transmissions in the network against link breakage
  • Enhance performance of network in term throughput and packet delivery.
  • Reduce delay of data packets between source and destination.


This strategy mainly optimizes the power depletion and maintains a more or less uniform power usage among all the nodes in the network while maintaining effective throughput. In our simulation, we observe a sharp performance and power usage gains using the proposed algorithm. A proposed scheme has been utilizes power status of each mobile node and alternate paths. This scheme can be incorporated into any ad hoc on-demand routing protocol to improve reliable packet delivery in the face of node movements and route breaks. Alternate routes are utilized only when data packets cannot be delivered through the primary route. As a case study, it has been applied to AODV and performance has been studied via simulations. Simulation results have indicated that new technique provides robustness to mobility and enhances protocol performance.However, this scheme may not perform well under sparse traffic networks. Its performance has been found much better than other existing protocols in dense medium as probability of finding active routes increases.According to our simulation result we also get important packet transmission concept. This one is the one unique concept to utilizes energy remaining after threshold level.


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