Coming along with the urgent development of wireless technology, wireless devices have invaded the medical area with a wide range of capability. Not only improving the quality of life of patients and doctor-patient efficiency, wireless technology enables clinicians to monitor patients remotely and give them timely health information, reminders, and support – potentially extending the reach of health care by making it available anywhere, anytime. In this survey paper we discuss advantages of wireless medical devices and challenges involved in this technology. We focus on Wireless Personal Area Network technologies, WiMAX, Wi-Fi and Zigbee. We have also investigated standards being used in wireless medical applications and location of wireless network in a healthcare system. Finally, we identify innovative medical applications of wireless networks developed or being developed in research, projects and research groups on wireless medical application, and commercial products.



2. Voltage regulator 7805.

3. Diode IN4007

4. RFID Module.

5. Some other components.


Arduino is an open-source electronics platform based on easy-touse hardware and software. It's intended for anyone making interactive projects. Arduino is a tool for making computers that can sense and control more of the physical world than your desktop computer. It's an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for writing software for the board. Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects, taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors, and controlling a variety of lights, motors, and other physical outputs. Arduino projects can be stand-alone, or they can be communicate with software running on your computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, MaxMSP.) The boards can be assembled by hand or purchased preassembled; the open-source IDE can be downloaded for free. The Arduino programming language is an implementation of Wiring, a similar physical computing platform, which is based on the Processing multimedia programming environment.

Key features of Arduino

There are many other microcontrollers and microcontroller platforms available for physical computing. Parallax Basic Stamp, Net media’s BX-24, Phidgets, MIT's Handyboard, and many others offer similar functionality. All of these tools take the messy details of microcontroller programming and wrap it up in an easy-to-use package. Arduino also simplifies the process of working with microcontrollers, but it offers some advantage for teachers, students, and interested amateurs over other systems:

Inexpensive - Arduino boards are relatively inexpensive compared to other microcontroller platforms. The least expensive version of the Arduino module can be assembled by hand, and even the preassembled Arduino modules cost less than $50

Cross-platform - The Arduino software runs on Windows, Macintosh OSX, and Linux operating systems.

Most microcontroller systems are limited to Windows. Simple, clear programming environment - The Arduino programming environment is easy-to-use for beginners, yet flexible enough for advanced users to take advantage of as well. For teachers, it's conveniently based on the Processing programming environment, so students learning to program in that environment will be familiar with the look and feel of Arduino Open source and extensible software- The Arduino software is published as open source tools, available for extension by experienced programmers. The language can be expanded through C++ libraries, and people wanting to understand the technical details can make the leap from Arduino to the AVR C programming language on which it's based. SImilarly, you can add AVR-C code directly into your Arduino programs if you want to. Open source and extensible hardware - The Arduino is based on Atmel's ATMEGA8, ATMEGA128, ATMEGA168 and others microcontrollers. The plans for the modules are published under a Creative Commons license, so experienced circuit designers can make their own version of the module, extending it and improving it. Even relatively inexperienced users can build the breadboardversion of the module in order to understand how it works and savemoney.


Arduino Development Environment

The Arduino development environment contains a text editor forwriting code, a message area, a text console, a toolbar with buttonsfor common functions, and a series of menus. It connects to theArduino hardware to upload programs and communicate withthem.

Writing Sketches

Software written using Arduino are called sketches. These sketchesare written in the text editor. Sketches are saved with the fileextension .ino. It has features for cutting/pasting and forsearching/replacing text. The message area gives feedback whilesaving and exporting and also displays errors. The console displaystext output by the Arduino environment including complete errormessages and other information. The bottom righthand corner ofthe window displays the current board and serial port. The toolbarbuttons allow you to verify and upload programs, create, open, andsave sketches, and open the serial monitor.The open-source Arduino environment makes it easy to write codeand upload it to the i/o board. It runs on Windows, Mac OS X, andLinux. The environment is written in Java and based onProcessing, avr-gcc, and other open source software.


The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based onthe ATmega328 . It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramicresonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and areset button. It contains everything needed to support themicrocontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cableor power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not usethe FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it featuresthe Atmega16U2 (Atmega8U2 up to version R2) programmed as aUSB-to-serial converter.

Microcontroller ATmega328

Operating Voltage 5V

Input Voltage 7-12V(recommended)

Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V

Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)

Analog Input Pins 6DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA

DC Current for 3.3VPin50 mA

Flash Memory32 KB (ATmega328) of which 0.5 KBused by bootloader

SRAM 2 KB (ATmega328)EEPROM 1 KB (ATmega328)

Clock Speed 16 MHz


Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is an automaticidentification method, relying on storing and remotely retrievingdata using devices called RFID tags or transponders. Thetechnology requires some extent of cooperation of an RFID readerand an RFID tag.An RFID tag is an object that can be applied to or incorporatedinto a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identificationand tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read fromseveral meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.An RFID tag is an object that can be applied to or incorporatedinto a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification

and tracking using radio waves. Some tags can be read fromseveral meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.

What is RFID?

A basic RFID system consists of three components:

a) An antenna or coil

b) A transceiver (with decoder)

c) A transponder (RF tag)

Electronically programmed with unique information. There aremany different types of RFID systems out in the market. They arecategorized according to their frequency ranges. Some of the mostcommonly used RFID kits are as follows:

1) Low-frequency (30 KHz to 500 KHz)

2) Mid-Frequency (900 KHz to 1500MHz)

3) High Frequency (2.4GHz to 2.5GHz)

These frequency ranges mostly tell the RF ranges of the tags fromlow frequency tag ranging from 3m to 5m, mid-frequency rangingfrom 5m to 17m and high frequency ranging from 5ft to 90ft. Thecost of the system is based according to their ranges with lowfrequencysystem ranging from a few hundred dollars to a highfrequencysystem ranging somewhere near 5000 dollars.

Typical Applications for RFID

• Automatic Vehicle identification

• Inventory Management

• Work-in-Process

• Container/ Yard Management

• Document/ Jewelry tracking