Unit 2: Biochemistry

Content Outline: Carbon Properties (2.3)

  1. Organic Chemistry
  2. Branch of science dealing with the element carbon and its many properties.
  3. It is usually associated with allliving organisms.
  4. About 30% of an organism’sdry weight(called Biomass) is Carbon in organic molecules.
  5. Helps to make the organic molecules:Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids.
  6. The original source for Carbon inall life forms is Carbon Dioxide. (CO2 in Photosynthesis)
  7. Inorganic refers to most compounds not containing Carbon. (CH4 [Methane gas] and CO2 or CO are

exceptions. They contain Carbon but are classified as inorganic.)

  1. Carbon’s e- configuration
  2. Carbon has versatility in four directions because of the four unpaired electrons in its outer shell.

1. It is said to have tetravalence. (“tetra” means 4; “valence” is the outer electron shell.)

  1. These four unpaired electronsallow carbon to act like an intersection in the building of an organic molecule by using those to form covalent bonds with other atoms.
  2. This allows cells to build an almost infinite number of different molecules.
  3. Covalent bonding capabilitiesof Carbon
  4. Single Bond between Carbon atoms. (Shown as: C-C)
  5. Double Bond between Carbon atoms. (Shown as: C=C)
  6. Triple Bond between Carbon atoms. (Shown as: C=C)
  1. Hydrocarbons
  2. Molecules containing mostly Carbon and Hydrogen.
  3. Most hydrocarbons are energy sources. (Some examples are: Fossil fuels, oils, and fats.)
  4. The more Hydrogen atoms in a molecule; the more energythere is in the molecule.
  5. Hydrocarbons are important parts of cell membranes. (The tails of phospholipids.)
  6. All hydrocarbons are extremely hydrophobic because they are nonpolarmolecules. (“Afraid of” water’s polarity.)
  1. Functional Groupsassociated with Organic Molecules
  2. These are the sites of most organic molecules chemical reactions or properties. (They have a functionto do.)
  3. Hydroxyls (-OH)
  4. This group allows molecules to act as an alcohol or polar molecule.
  5. Name usually ends with “ol”.
  6. Carbonyls only have one double-bonded oxygen. (It takes one stroke to make a lower case “n”.)
  7. Aldehydes A is at one endof the alphabet.(Carbonyl is located on the end of the molecule.)
  8. Ketones K is in the middle of the alphabet.(Carbonyl is located in the middle of the molecule.)
  9. Carboxyl hastwo oxygen atoms…one double bonded and one single bonded.(It takes two strokes to make an “x”)
  10. These molecules can act as an acid by losing a Hydrogen atom and can also possibly be polar too.
  11. AmineContain Nitrogen
  12. Can act as bases by picking up free H+.
  13. SulfhydrylContain Sulfur
  14. Sulfur can make Di-Sulfide bridges for “pockets” in protein formation.
  15. PhosphateContain Phosphorus
  16. These molecules are usually involved in E Transfers, such as associated with ATP. They can also act like an Anion, a negative ion.