Numerator / The top part of a fraction.

Denominator / The bottom part of a fraction.

Place Value / The numerical value that a digit has by its position in a number.

Simplest Form / A fraction is in simplest form when the top and bottom cannot be divided by the same whole number (bigger than one).

Percent / One part in every hundred.

Word / Definition / Example

Integers / All natural numbers (counting numbers) and their opposites plus zero.

Rational Numbers / A number written as a ratio a/b where a and b are both integers and b is not equal to zero.

Coordinate Plane / The plane determined by a horizontal number line, called the x-axis, and a vertical number line, called the y-axis, intersecting at a point called the origin.

Ordered Pair / A pair of numbers used to locate a point on a coordinate plane; the first number tells you how far to move horizontally and the second number tells you how far to move vertically.

Origin / The point where the x-axis and the y-axis in the coordinate plane intersect or cross.

Word / Definition / Example

Point / A dot on the coordinate plane that represents an ordered pair.

Quadrant / Any of the four areas made when we divide up a plan by an x and y-axis. They are numbered I, II, III, and IV.

Natural Numbers

or

Counting Numbers / The numbers that start with 1 and count by 1s. For example 1, 2, 3…

Whole Numbers / Natural numbers or counting numbers plus zero.

Linear Relationship / A relationship of direct proportionality that, when plotted on a graph, traces a straight line.

Word / Definition / Example

Term / A single number or variable, or numbers and variables multiplied together. It is separated by + or – signs.

Product / The answer to a multiplication problem.

Factors / The numbers we multiply together to get another number.

Quotient / The answer to a division problem.

Dividend / The amount that you want to divide.

Word / Definition / Example

Divisor / The number by which the dividend is divided.

Fraction / One number written over another number, separated by a division bar.

Greatest Common Factor (GCF) / The largest whole number that divides evenly into two or more numbers.

Reciprocal / What to multiply a value by to get 1.

Unit Fraction / A rational number written as a fraction where the numerator is one and the denominator is a whole number.

Word / Definition / Example

Improper Fraction / A fraction where the numerator is larger than the denominator. This fraction has a value greater than one.

Proper Fraction / A fraction where the numerator is smaller than the denominator. This fraction has a value less than one.

Mixed Number / A number consisting of an integer and a proper fraction. This number has a value greater than one.

Opposites / Two numbers that are equal distance from zero on the number line.

Additive Inverse / A number that, when added to another number, gets a sum of zero.

Word / Definition / Example

Inverse Property of Addition / Any number plus its opposite gets a sum of zero.

Zero Pair / One pair of numbers whose sum is zero.

Expression / A mathematical phrase that can contain numbers, variables, and mathematical operations. There is no equals sign.

Equation / Two mathematical phrases that can contain numbers, variables, and mathematical operations joined by an equals sign.

Ratio / A comparison of two quantities separated by a colon, the word “to,” or a fraction bar.

Word / Definition / Example

Rate / A special ratio in which the two quantities are in different units.

Unit Rate / A special ratio in which the two quantities are in different units and the second quantity is a value of one.

Unit Price / A special ratio in which the first quantity is a price and the second quantity is a measurement with a value of one.

Ratio Table / A table that represents the relationships between different ratios. It shows a comparison of two or more quantities.

Equivalent Ratios / Two ratios that express the same relationship between numbers.

Word / Definition / Example

Scale Factor / A number that scales, or multiplies, some quantity. This number is the ratio between the size of a model or other representation to the actual size of the object represented.

Scaling / The act of measuring or arranging or adjusting according to a scale.

Conversion Factor / A factor used to multiply or divide a quantity when converting from one system of units to another.

Benchmark Fractions / A common fraction that you can use to judge other numbers against.

Benchmark Percents / A common percent that you can use to judge other numbers against.

Word / Definition / Example

Proportion / Two equal ratios.

Percent Proportion / Two equal ratios with one ratio having a percent over a 100.

Independent Quantity or Independent Variable / A number or variable in a mathematical equation or expression whose value determines the dependent variable.

Dependent Quantity or Dependent Variable / A number or variable that depends on another value.

Input / In equation form this is another word for the variable x. This is what is going into the equation.

Word / Definition / Example

Output / In equation form this is another word for the variable y. This is what is coming out of the equation.

Sequence / A sequence is an ordered collection of numbers.

Variable / A letter that represents one or more numbers.

Arithmetic Sequence / A sequence of numbers such that the difference between the consecutive terms is constant.

Geometric Sequence / A sequence of numbers where each term after the first is found by multiplying the previous one by a fixed, non-zero number.

Word / Definition / Example

Sum / The answer to an addition problem.

Additive Relationship / A relationship found by taking the x values or inputs and adding a certain number to get the y values or outputs. Written in the form y=x+a, where a is any rational number.

Multiplicative Relationship / A relationship found by taking the x values or inputs and multiplying a certain number to get the y values or outputs. Written in the form y=ax, where a is any rational number.

Difference / The answer to a subtraction problem.

Mathematical Operations / The four main operations in math: adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing.

Word / Definition / Example

Base / In a power, the number used as a factor.

Equivalent Expressions / Expressions that have the same value.

Exponent / In a power, the number that tells you how many times the base is used as a factor.

Powers / Numbers expressed using using exponents. / you would say…

“Two to the fourth power”

Perfect Square / Numbers with square roots that are whole numbers.

Word / Definition / Example

Numerical Expression / A combination of numbers and operations.

Evaluate

(an algebraic expression) / To find the value of an algebraic expression by replacing variables with numbers and solving.

Prime Number / A whole number with exactly two unique factors, 1 and itself.

Composite Number / A whole number that has more than two unique factors.

Prime Factorization / A way of expressing a composite number as a product of its prime factors.

Word / Definition / Example

Order of Operations / The rules that tell which operation to perform first when more than one operation is used. /

**Grouping Symbols Exponents Multiplying/Dividing Adding/S**ubtracting

Algebra / A mathematical language of symbols, including variables.

Algebraic Expression / A combination of variables, numbers, and at least one operation.

Like Terms / Terms that contain the same variable(s) to the same power.

Defining the Variable / Choosing a variable and deciding what the variable represents.

Word / Definition / Example

Properties / Statements that are true for any number. / a+b+c=c+b+a

ax(bxc)=(axb)xc

a+(-a)=0

bx1=b

Commutative Property / The order in which numbers are added or multiplied does not change the sum or product. / Commutative Property of Addition

a+b+c=c+b+a

OR

Commutative Property of Multiplication

a∙b∙c=c∙b∙a

Associative Property / The way in which numbers are grouped when adding or multiplying does not change the sum or product. / Associative Property of Addition

a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c

OR

Associative Property of Multiplication

a∙(b∙c)=(a∙b)∙c

Identity Property / Properties that state that the sum of any number and 0 equals that number and the product of any number and 1 equals that number. / Identity Property of Addition

a+0=a

OR

Identity Property of Multiplication

a∙1=a

Inverse Property / Properties that state that the sum of any number and its opposite is always zero and the product of any number and its reciprocal is always one. / Inverse Property of Addition

a+(-a)=0

OR

Inverse Property of Multiplication

a∙1a=1

Word / Definition / Example

Inverse Operations / Operations that undo each other.

Distributive Property / To multiply a sum or difference by a number, multiply each term by the number outside the parenthesis.

Factor the Expression / The process of writing numeric or algebraic expressions as a product of their factors.

Coefficient / The numerical factor of a term that contains a variable.

Constant / A term without a variable.