Word / Definition / Example
Numerator / The top part of a fraction.
Denominator / The bottom part of a fraction.
Place Value / The numerical value that a digit has by its position in a number.
Simplest Form / A fraction is in simplest form when the top and bottom cannot be divided by the same whole number (bigger than one).
Percent / One part in every hundred.
Word / Definition / Example
Integers / All natural numbers (counting numbers) and their opposites plus zero.
Rational Numbers / A number written as a ratio a/b where a and b are both integers and b is not equal to zero.
Coordinate Plane / The plane determined by a horizontal number line, called the x-axis, and a vertical number line, called the y-axis, intersecting at a point called the origin.
Ordered Pair / A pair of numbers used to locate a point on a coordinate plane; the first number tells you how far to move horizontally and the second number tells you how far to move vertically.
Origin / The point where the x-axis and the y-axis in the coordinate plane intersect or cross.
Word / Definition / Example
Point / A dot on the coordinate plane that represents an ordered pair.
Quadrant / Any of the four areas made when we divide up a plan by an x and y-axis. They are numbered I, II, III, and IV.
Natural Numbers
or
Counting Numbers / The numbers that start with 1 and count by 1s. For example 1, 2, 3…
Whole Numbers / Natural numbers or counting numbers plus zero.
Linear Relationship / A relationship of direct proportionality that, when plotted on a graph, traces a straight line.
Word / Definition / Example
Term / A single number or variable, or numbers and variables multiplied together. It is separated by + or – signs.
Product / The answer to a multiplication problem.
Factors / The numbers we multiply together to get another number.
Quotient / The answer to a division problem.
Dividend / The amount that you want to divide.
Word / Definition / Example
Divisor / The number by which the dividend is divided.
Fraction / One number written over another number, separated by a division bar.
Greatest Common Factor (GCF) / The largest whole number that divides evenly into two or more numbers.
Reciprocal / What to multiply a value by to get 1.
Unit Fraction / A rational number written as a fraction where the numerator is one and the denominator is a whole number.
Word / Definition / Example
Improper Fraction / A fraction where the numerator is larger than the denominator. This fraction has a value greater than one.
Proper Fraction / A fraction where the numerator is smaller than the denominator. This fraction has a value less than one.
Mixed Number / A number consisting of an integer and a proper fraction. This number has a value greater than one.
Opposites / Two numbers that are equal distance from zero on the number line.
Additive Inverse / A number that, when added to another number, gets a sum of zero.
Word / Definition / Example
Inverse Property of Addition / Any number plus its opposite gets a sum of zero.
Zero Pair / One pair of numbers whose sum is zero.
Expression / A mathematical phrase that can contain numbers, variables, and mathematical operations. There is no equals sign.
Equation / Two mathematical phrases that can contain numbers, variables, and mathematical operations joined by an equals sign.
Ratio / A comparison of two quantities separated by a colon, the word “to,” or a fraction bar.
Word / Definition / Example
Rate / A special ratio in which the two quantities are in different units.
Unit Rate / A special ratio in which the two quantities are in different units and the second quantity is a value of one.
Unit Price / A special ratio in which the first quantity is a price and the second quantity is a measurement with a value of one.
Ratio Table / A table that represents the relationships between different ratios. It shows a comparison of two or more quantities.
Equivalent Ratios / Two ratios that express the same relationship between numbers.
Word / Definition / Example
Scale Factor / A number that scales, or multiplies, some quantity. This number is the ratio between the size of a model or other representation to the actual size of the object represented.
Scaling / The act of measuring or arranging or adjusting according to a scale.
Conversion Factor / A factor used to multiply or divide a quantity when converting from one system of units to another.
Benchmark Fractions / A common fraction that you can use to judge other numbers against.
Benchmark Percents / A common percent that you can use to judge other numbers against.
Word / Definition / Example
Proportion / Two equal ratios.
Percent Proportion / Two equal ratios with one ratio having a percent over a 100.
Independent Quantity or Independent Variable / A number or variable in a mathematical equation or expression whose value determines the dependent variable.
Dependent Quantity or Dependent Variable / A number or variable that depends on another value.
Input / In equation form this is another word for the variable x. This is what is going into the equation.
Word / Definition / Example
Output / In equation form this is another word for the variable y. This is what is coming out of the equation.
Sequence / A sequence is an ordered collection of numbers.
Variable / A letter that represents one or more numbers.
Arithmetic Sequence / A sequence of numbers such that the difference between the consecutive terms is constant.
Geometric Sequence / A sequence of numbers where each term after the first is found by multiplying the previous one by a fixed, non-zero number.
Word / Definition / Example
Additive Relationship / A relationship found by taking the x values or inputs and adding a certain number to get the y values or outputs. Written in the form y=x+a, where a is any rational number.
Multiplicative Relationship / A relationship found by taking the x values or inputs and multiplying a certain number to get the y values or outputs. Written in the form y=ax, where a is any rational number.
Difference / The answer to a subtraction problem.
Mathematical Operations / The four main operations in math: adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing.
Word / Definition / Example
Base / In a power, the number used as a factor.
Equivalent Expressions / Expressions that have the same value.
Exponent / In a power, the number that tells you how many times the base is used as a factor.
Powers / Numbers expressed using using exponents. / you would say…
“Two to the fourth power”
Perfect Square / Numbers with square roots that are whole numbers.
Word / Definition / Example
Numerical Expression / A combination of numbers and operations.
Evaluate
(an algebraic expression) / To find the value of an algebraic expression by replacing variables with numbers and solving.
Prime Number / A whole number with exactly two unique factors, 1 and itself.
Composite Number / A whole number that has more than two unique factors.
Prime Factorization / A way of expressing a composite number as a product of its prime factors.
Word / Definition / Example
Order of Operations / The rules that tell which operation to perform first when more than one operation is used. / Grouping Symbols Exponents Multiplying/Dividing Adding/Subtracting
Algebra / A mathematical language of symbols, including variables.
Algebraic Expression / A combination of variables, numbers, and at least one operation.
Like Terms / Terms that contain the same variable(s) to the same power.
Defining the Variable / Choosing a variable and deciding what the variable represents.
Word / Definition / Example
Properties / Statements that are true for any number. / a+b+c=c+b+a
ax(bxc)=(axb)xc
a+(-a)=0
bx1=b
Commutative Property / The order in which numbers are added or multiplied does not change the sum or product. / Commutative Property of Addition
a+b+c=c+b+a
OR
Commutative Property of Multiplication
a∙b∙c=c∙b∙a
Associative Property / The way in which numbers are grouped when adding or multiplying does not change the sum or product. / Associative Property of Addition
a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c
OR
Associative Property of Multiplication
a∙(b∙c)=(a∙b)∙c
Identity Property / Properties that state that the sum of any number and 0 equals that number and the product of any number and 1 equals that number. / Identity Property of Addition
a+0=a
OR
Identity Property of Multiplication
a∙1=a
Inverse Property / Properties that state that the sum of any number and its opposite is always zero and the product of any number and its reciprocal is always one. / Inverse Property of Addition
a+(-a)=0
OR
Inverse Property of Multiplication
a∙1a=1
Word / Definition / Example
Inverse Operations / Operations that undo each other.
Distributive Property / To multiply a sum or difference by a number, multiply each term by the number outside the parenthesis.
Factor the Expression / The process of writing numeric or algebraic expressions as a product of their factors.
Coefficient / The numerical factor of a term that contains a variable.
Constant / A term without a variable.