SIA “Turiba University’’

Unified registration No.4000313580,

Graudu street 68, Riga, LV-1058



SIA ‘’ Turiba University’’

Senate Meeting minutes No. 8, Date: 28.08.2015

Board decree No.26, Date: 31.08.2015.



1.General provisions

2.General requirements

3.Plan for compilation of Papers

4.The length of the Paper and its structure

5.Components of the Paper

6.Text Layout

7.Title page

8.Table of contents and headings

9.Tables, figures, formulas and units

10.Numbering and bullets

11.References to literature and text elements

12.Number of Scientific publications to be used in Papers

13.List of literature and sources used

14.Abbreviations and use thereof

15.Format of Appendices

16.Binding the paper and submitting the electronic version

17.Special requirements for doctoral theses

Sample of theme proposal for a study paper

Theme application form for qualification papers, academic and professional bachelor theses and master’s theses

Theme proposal form for doctoral theses

Sample of title page for study papers, practice reports and research papers

Sample of title page

Sample of title page for synopsis of doctoral thesis

Sample of layout of first page of doctoral thesis

Sample of assurance of independent research carried out by the student

Sample of form attesting presentation of paper to State Examination Committee

Sample of form attesting presentation of paper to State Examination Committee

Sample of References

Sample of List of literature and sources used

1. General provisions

1.1. The aim of these regulations - to set out unified requirements regarding the compilation and layout of all independent research papers at Turiba University (hereinafter - BAT).

1.2. These regulations include unified requirements for the compilation and layout of all independent research papers compiled by students of BAT (papers, practice reports, study papers, independent research papers, qualification papers, academic and professional bachelor theses, master theses, doctoral research papers and doctoral theses) hereinafter referred to as - Papers).

1.3. The specific requirements of the branch or sub branch of science taking into account the specific professional standards and the specifics of the study programmes for the compilation and layout of Papers are regulated by the respective faculties who can work out additional requirements and recommendations for their compilation.

1.4. The Faculty can only set out requirements for Papers on those aspects that are not foreseen in these regulations herein.

2. General requirements

2.1. Student shall follow the following requirements while compiling Papers:

2.1.1. Students shall carry out independent research on actual issues connected to the study programme without just copying the literature or other sources of material, data or information;

2.1.2. The content of the Papers shall provide consistent solutions to issues in accordance with the topic, research goals, tasks and hypothesis or research question (with the exception of practice reports);

2.1.3. The transition from one issue to another from chapter to chapter should be mutually connected;

2.1.4. Unified and consistent terminology shall be used throughout the Paper;

2.1.5. The progress of the research, results, conclusions and recommendations shall be reflected in a precise, logical, coherent and complete manner;

2.1.6. Disclosure of information that is legally protected and in the possession of the student is prohibited (e.g. personal data, confidential investigative reports, commercial secrets etc.);

2.1.7. References shall be provided for facts, data, information, definitions and citations included in the Papers if they have not been worked out by the authors themselves.

2.2. The Papers shall be written in formal academic language in passive voice („was researched”, „results of analysis indicate” etc.) and/or in third person („author” and not „I”, „My” etc.).

2.3. The analysis, interpretations and statements shall be grounded and only the opinions of the author shall be reflected; declarative statements and clichés, pointless descriptions and empty phrases, mechanical copying of notions, definitions, and citations should be avoided; .

2.4. Vulgar unjustified criticism is not allowed while analysing the works of other authors; international and national copyright laws and ethical norms of scientific research shall be observed. Plagiarism (citing the works of other authors as one’s own in parts or as a whole) and self plagiarism (repeatedly citing one’s own works without making fundamental changes in them) is prohibited.

2.5. Students of the Faculty of Law (hereinafter – JF) must use/refer to normative enactments and judicial documents while compiling their papers. Students of other faculties shall use normative enactments to the scope as required by topics under research

3. Plan for compilation of Papers

3.1. The following plan for compilation of Papers is recommended:

3.1.1. Choice of topic, choice of advisor (it could be a person designated in accordance with the study course or practice programme), definition of hypothesis or research question, formulation of goals and tasks, theme proposal application (refer appendices 1, 2 and 3) and its approval;

3.1.2. Drafting the structure of the Paper and work plan for research;

3.1.3. Study and review of literature and list of sources;

3.1.4. the progress of the research, gathering information and materials, surveys and systematisation;

3.1.5. Processing the information and materials gathered – analysis, interpretation, generalisation, conclusions and recommendations;

3.1.6. Writing and compiling the first draft version of the paper;

3.1.7. Revising the paper taking into account the remarks and recommendations of the advisor;

3.1.8. Compiling the final version of the paper.

3.2. Students shall agree upon the deadlines for the paper and the rights and obligations with the advisor.

3.3. Students can choose the topic for the paper taking into account the recommendations of the department or independently in accordance with one’s interests by justifying the topicality of the theme. The topic/theme shall be approved by the advisor. The theme can be a continuation of previous study (course) papers or an entirely new topic.

3.4. The following should be taken into account while choosing a topic/theme for Papers:

3.4.1. The theme is topical and reflects problems faced in modern day practice;

3.4.2. The theme is short and precise and shall include the object of the research, the research environment, research limitations as well as further research.

3.4.3. The theme shall be expressed as a simple extended sentence without the use of any punctuation marks (commas, semi colon etc.) if possible.

3.5. The theme proposals for qualification papers, academic and professional bachelor theses and master theses (refer appendix 2) shall be discussed during the department meetings and and approved by the dean of the respective faculty.

4. The length of the Paper and its structure

4.1. The length of the Paper (excluding annotation and appendices) shall be as follows:

4.1.1. Practice reports – in accordance with the relevant practice descriptions;

4.1.2. Study papers for the first study year - from 15 to 25 pages;

4.1.3. Study papers for the second and third study year – from 25 to 35 pages;

4.1.4. Qualification papers – from 40 to 60 pages;

4.1.5. Academic bachelor papers – from 60 to 80 pages;

4.1.6. Professional bachelor theses – from 60 to 80 pages;

4.1.7. Master’s theses – from 80 to 100 pages;

4.1.8. Doctoral theses – from 150 to 200 pages.

4.2. The structure of the Papers shall consist of:

4.2.1. Title page;

4.2.2. annotation with keywords (with the exception of practice reports);

4.2.3. table of contents;

4.2.4. list of abbreviations and acronyms if there are 10 (ten) or more in the Paper:

4.2.5. list of figures and tables if there are 10 (ten) or more in the Paper:

4.2.6. main chapters of the paper (chapters and sub chapters);

4.2.7. conclusions and recommendations.

4.2.8. list of literature and sources;

4.2.9. appendices (if necessary);

4.2.10. form with the student's signature testifying the fact that the Paper is the student's independent work (refer appendix 8);

4.2.11. form with information regarding the date of presentation/defence of the Paper - only for study papers. The record no. assigned by State qualification exam committee (for qualification papers) or State examination committee (academic and professional bachelor theses and master's theses) (refer appendix 10)

4.2.12. Title page, annotation, appendices and forms shall not be numbered within the scope of the Paper.

5. Components of the Paper

5.1. Annotation – a short summary of the Paper that provides readers an insight about the research work carried out and its main results. Annotation shall reflect the topic, goals of research, research methods used and main results, the length of the paper, number of tables and figures included and keywords:

5.1.1. Annotations for qualification papers, academic and professional bachelor theses and master theses shall be written in three languages – Latvian, English and any other foreign language;

5.1.2. Study paper annotations shall be written in one language (language of the study paper);

5.1.3. Length of the annotation – up to 1200 characters with spaces;

5.1.4. Annotations shall not be indicated in the table of contents.

5.2. Introduction:

5.2.1. Justification of theoretical and practical topicality of the theme and the choice of the theme, description of problems and practical use/application of the research;

5.2.2. For qualification papers, academic and professional bachelor theses and master theses the research context (environment) is a phenomenon (organisation, case, process etc.), that arouses the interest of the author (e.g. enterprise, field of law, sector, tour itinerary, mass media etc.);

5.2.3. For qualification papers, academic and professional bachelor theses and master theses the object of the research reflects and studies specific features and relationships within the research context (environment). It is more specific than the research context (e.g. various specific aspects maybe studied/researched within the context/environment - in an organisation/enterprise one may study/research in depth – personnel management, finance management, public relations etc.), aspects, which have a direct impact on the existence and functioning of the research context (environment);

5.2.4. The research question/ research hypothesis has to be formulated: The research question is the initial statement of the author formulated as a question that connects the object of the research with the research context(environment) and identifies the problems faced. For example „Does SIA „W” provide opportunities for qualitative storage of information?” The research hypothesis is the assumption of the author that stems from the object under research (main research problem) that the author would test/study during the research; it would either be confirmed or rejected based on the main research results. Only statements/assumptions that are not generally known/accepted circumstances and those that directly correspond to the aims and objectives of the theme under research as a whole and not just a part/chapter of the Paper can be formulated as an hypothesis. For example, „The desired changes in the organisational culture of SIA „W” are related to changes in process management and factors that influence them” or „Frequent changes in legislation concerning insolvency processes are related to economic interests of foreign investors” :

5.2.5. The author shall define and formulate the research goals based on the actuality of the topic, object under research, the research context (environment) and the author's opinion of possible solutions to the issues being researched; The definition shall be clear, short and concise. The research goals shall indicate how precisely the goals shall be achieved (work out a methodology, offer measures, put forward recommendations, improve ways or design approaches to enhance systems etc.);

5.2.6. The research tasks and objectives set out to achieve the research goals, that is a series of actions/activities that reflects main content of the research, e.g. to explore, review, analyse etc. shall be clearly defined.

5.2.7. Research methods used in the Paper shall be specifically mentioned justifying why and in what way each particular method is used;

5.2.8. Research limitations (if the scope of the research cannot be covered fully in the Paper) in terms of time and place shall be mentioned;

5.2.9. Theoretical and methodological base for the research, that form the theoretical base for the Paper (sources, models, theories etc.), and which previous research works, methods, information, data etc. have been used shall be described;

5.2.10. The introduction of doctoral theses shall in addition encompass: an in depth analysis of previous research work carried out in that particular field focusing specifically on the issues under research based on specific facts, data, sources etc. and describing the novelty of the current research. The length of the introduction shall be at least 5-6 (five to six) pages; the scientific novelty of the research, its scientific and socio-economic significance of the research, its practical application and financial feasibility shall be described; dissemination of the doctoral research results (scientific publications, conferences, seminars where the results have been presented) shall also be mentioned.

5.3. Main part:

5.3.1. The theoretical part shall cover (review and justify) the progress of the research related to the specific tasks that have to be carried out by citing, paraphrasing and evaluating the opinions of other authors and also appending the views of the author himself/herself on the above-mentioned. The main part shall analyse e.g. theories, theoretical concepts, models, legal enactments, draft laws or any other documents that could be a source of law as well as evaluate specific practical examples and theoretical conceptions and notions relevant to the problem under research. Scientific concepts and ideas shall not just be mentioned but shall be analysed, compared and evaluated emphasising the opinions and arguments of the author. All issues reviewed in the theoretical part shall be directly related to issues related to the topic of the Paper, its goals and shall ensure the successful fulfilment of the research;

5.3.2. The empirical part shall testify the skills of the author in carrying out independent empirical research, using the theoretical knowledge gained, forecasting the possible development of the issues. The empirical part shall include a situation analysis carried out independently by the author and the research results, cause and effect relationships of these results and a review of possible alternative solutions in accordance with the goals as well as a list of comprehensive well justified recommendations and evaluation of hypothesis or the research question. The empirical part shall also include a justification of the choice of research methodology: theoretical basis and detailed description of the research methodology i.e. the research type, research sample, research methods chosen, research design/plan etc. Students shall use materials gathered during practice placements, results of independent surveys, description of empirically obtained results, compare one’s own results with results from similar research works and analyse the results in accordance with the hypothesis or the research question put forward;.

5.3.3. Students of the Faculty of Law shall carry out analysis of specific legal sources (national, European Union as well as international legal acts and case law) related to the problem under research.

5.4. Structure of the main part:

5.4.1. Chapters and sub chapters of the main part shall be dedicated to separate tasks set during the research of the topic. The main part shall include at least three chapters which could be further divided into sub chapters;

5.4.2. Chapters and sub chapters shall be divided proportionally and sub chapters have to be not less than two pages and have to be mutually interconnected;

5.4.3. Chapters and sub chapters cannot start with a figure or table;

5.4.4. Chapters and sub chapters may not end with a citation, figure or table; the evaluation of the author shall follow the citation, figure or table – analysis, argumented opinions for or against the above mentioned concepts, ideas;

5.4.5. It is recommended that each chapter and sub chapter be connected /related to the next chapter or sub chapter;

5.4.6. The Paper could be divided into chapters and chapters could be further divided into sub chapters provided there is at least two sub chapters under each chapter;

5.4.7. The chapter heading could be followed by a short summary (one or two paragraphs) on the following sub chapters. The end of the chapter could include a summary by the author reviewing the main points in the chapter.

5.5. Data used in the main part:

5.5.1. Data and materials over a period of three years is recommended to be used in research. If tables and figures are used then an analysis of the data reflected in them should be provided explaining and justifying the development trends, dynamics and correlations discovered;

5.5.2. The research results shall be illustrated in figures (diagrams, charts, photographs, drawings) and tables. The repetition of the same data an information is not allowed, e.g. figure, table and text form; the best and most appropriate form of representation of information on the research phenomena shall be used in each case;

5.5.3. The repetition of the description of theoretical and methodological base and empirical research at the level of chapters and sub chapters is not allowed;

5.5.4. Measurement and calculation results shall be indicated in international measurement (SI) system units.

5.6. Conclusions and recommendations:

5.6.1. Conclusions and recommendations form the final part of the Paper and shall reflect the main ideas and assessment of key research issues and final results obtained from the research carried out in the Paper . They shall be as a result of independent research carried out and shall correspond to the goals of the paper and shall be logically presented in a short concise form;

5.6.2. Conclusions and recommendations shall show a high degree of validity and reliability of results and shall reveal how exactly the author of the Paper managed to resolve the tasks set and what and how exactly the author proposes to introduce, implement, improve etc.;

5.6.3. It is recommended that each conclusion and recommendation be presented as a separate point or paragraph;

5.6.4. Conclusions and recommendations may not repeat or include citations, statements of other authors or rephrase them and shall only reflect the opinions, argumented statements, proposals, ideas and notions of the author of the Paper;