Chapter Three, Section One

Chapter Three, Section One

England & Its Colonies

England & Its Colonies Prosper

·  The trade relationship goal: improve BR

Mercantilism – economic system where goal is to increase wealth & power by establishing a favorable balance & trade (gold & silver)

·  BR – by utilizing new raw materials available to them from the colonies (i.e. fur, lumber, fish, tobacco)

·  But colonists were not trading exclusively with BR (Spain, FR, & Holland)

·  BR viewed this as a threat to their own balance & trade

·  So Parliament passed the Navigation Acts

Navigation Acts – series of laws restricting colonial trade (see p. 68) (So colonies could export certain products only to BR)

·  Results of Navigation Acts very positive for BR

Tensions Emerge

·  Not everyone’s happy with Navigation Acts

·  Many colonists ignored the acts and continued trading with other countries

·  1684 – King Charles II cracked down on the leaders and merchants in MA (he felt they were the worst violators)

·  Puritans from MA rarely adhered to Parliament

·  So BR revoked (took away) the colony’s charter & made it a Royal Colony

·  1685 – King James II succeeded King Charles II and he consolidated the northern colonies, calling it the “Dominion of New England”

·  Sir Edmund Andros – BR military guy chosen to govern “New England”

o  Condemned people & their ideas

o  Enforced Navigation Acts & prosecuted smugglers

o  Levied taxes

·  Increase Mather – MA minister traveled to BR to try and plead its case & remove Andros, but this was all when the Glorious Revolution was happening

·  Glorious Revolution – peaceful overthrow of King James II by William and Mary

o  A series of laws were passed by Parliament, limiting the power of the monarch.

·  Meanwhile back in North America, colonists arrested Andros & his royal leaders

·  In response, Massachusetts gained its charter back and this “Dominion of England” was no more

·  However, there were some changes:

o  King got to appoint Massachusetts governor

o  There was more religious toleration of other groups besides Puritans, such as Anglicans & Quakers

England Loosens the Reins

·  BR had to worry about FR with regards to control of Europe

·  As a result, colonies were left alone for awhile

o  Devoted very little $ to colonies

o  Reduced its # of soldiers to enforce colonial laws

·  Nonetheless, Navigation Acts were strengthened by:

o  Moving smuggling trials from colonial courts to courts with BR judges

o  Creating Board of trade – advisory board with broad powers to monitor colonial trade

Salutary Neglect – neglect for a positive purpose (benefit)

(1)  Colonists – enjoyed more freedom from BR

(2)  BR – still brought in raw materials & profits, but decreased administrative costs.

·  Salutary Neglect also affected colonial politics. (salary)

·  Colonists have their own governor, judges, local assembly, etc.

“Under England’s ‘less than watchful’ eye, the colonies were developing a taste for self-government that would eventually create the conditions for rebellion.”

·  Regardless, colonists were still loyal to BR (for now)

·  Each colony had its own motives & needs (no real desire to unite)

o  Life in North vs. South was developing VERY differently.