Teaching History of Chemistry in Europe

Teaching History of Chemistry in Europe

History of chemistry has been taught in European universities since chemistry was introduced as a part of university curricula. Eighteenth-century chemistry textbooks usually contained a large introduction on the history of chemistry.3 Many books and papers on history of chemistry were published in Germany and Britain at the beginning of nineteenth-centu ...

An Introduction to Celestial Mechanics

An Introduction to Celestial Mechanics

The aim of this book is to bridge the considerable gap between standard undergraduate treatments of celestial mechanics, which rarely advance much beyond two-body orbit theory, and full-blown graduate treatments, such as that by Murray & Dermott. The material presented here is intended to be intelligible to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate s ...

Physics of Soft Matter

These notes were prepared for the one-semester course in theoretical physics of soft condensed matter physics for master students at the Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana. The course consists of 30 hours of lectures and 15 hours of tutorials/seminar. The aim of the course is to provide a broad review the phenomena and the concepts characteri ...

Modern Theory of Nuclear Forces

Modern Theory of Nuclear Forces

Within the Standard Model of particle physics, the strong interactions are described by Quantum Chromodynmics (QCD). QCD is a fascinating theory with many intriguing manifestations. Its structure and interactions are governed by a local non-abelian gauge symmetry, namely SU(3)color. Its fundamental degrees of freedom, the quarks (the matter fields) and g ...

The Limits of Reductionism

The Limits of Reductionism

Classical science and engineering have used successfully a reductionist methodology, i.e. separate and simplify phenomena in order to predict their future. This approach has been applied in a variety of domains. Nevertheless, in recent decades the limits of reductionism have become evident in phenomena where interactions are relevant. Since reductionism ...

Psychophysics

Psychophysics

In the XIX century and earlier such physicists as Newton, Mayer, Hooke, Helmholtz and Mach were actively engaged in the research on psychophysics, trying to relate psychological sensations to intensities of physical stimuli. Computational physics allows to simulate complex neural processes giving a chance to answer not only the original psychophysical qu ...

New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences

New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences

A national strategy to sustain basic research and training across all areas of the Earth sciences would help inform the response to many of the major challenges that will face the planet in coming years. Issues including fossil fuel and water resources, earthquake and tsunami hazards, and profound environmental changes due to shifts in the climate system ...

Theory of Quantum Friction

Theory of Quantum Friction

Here, we develop a comprehensive quantum theory for the phenomenon of quantum friction. Based on a theory of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics for unstable systems, we calculate the quantum expectation of the friction force at zero temperature, and link the friction effect to the emergence of system instabilities related to the Cherenkov effect. These ...

Superconductor

Superconductivity is a very curious phenomenon characterized by a phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc) in which the conducting phase is in equilibrium with the superconducting phase. The most important properties of the superconducting phase are: zero resistance, ideal diamagnetism (Meissner effect), magnetic flux quantization and persistent c ...

Meissner Effect (1933) Re-Explained by Gill’S Electronic Theory of Magnetism (1964)

Meissner Effect (1933) Re-Explained by Gill’S Electronic Theory of Magnetism (1964)

Curie point is reached according to Gill’s electronic theory of magnetism (1964) because of the increased inter-atomic distance at a certain high temperature for a particular metal which makes it impossible for some exposed electrons of a ferromagnetic atom to latch onto the exposed protons of the next atom to cause magnetization. This Curie point could ...

The MAGNET Model

Chapter 1 - Introducing the MAGNET model The introduction describes MAGNET’s origins and its underlying philosophy. There is a description of the logic of the MAGNET model directory structure and an outline of its content. Finally, there is a summary of key MAGNET coding conventions to ease the reading of GEMPACK code. Chapter 2 - Adjustments and additio ...

Solar Wind and Kinetic Heliophysics

Solar Wind and Kinetic Heliophysics

This paper reviews recent aspects of solar wind physics and elucidates the role Alfvén waves play in solar wind acceleration and turbulence, which prevail in the low corona and inner heliosphere. Our understanding of the solar wind has made considerable progress based on remote sensing, in situ measurements, kinetic simulation and fluid modeling. Further ...

Detection of Energetic Neutral Atoms

Detection of Energetic Neutral Atoms

Energetic neutral atoms originate from locations in space where an energized plasma and a cold neutral background gas co-exist. When encountering a neutral gas atom, singly charged plasma ions can undergo a charge-exchange process resulting in an energetic neutral atom (ENA) and a low-energy ion. Being electrically neutral, the newly created ENA will lea ...

ASTROPHYSICAL PARADOXES, Long Version

ASTROPHYSICAL PARADOXES, Long Version

Astrophysical paradoxes are the paradoxes of physics. The main motivation of a formulated paradox is clearly recognized in the scientific environment because the phenomenon of a paradox itself has become interesting. There is an explanation of how and why the phenomenon of paradox started to exist, as there is an explanation for the existence of any phen ...

A Preview of a Construction of a Crystal Lattice Based on Intermolecular Interactions

A Preview of a Construction of a Crystal Lattice Based on Intermolecular Interactions

A general procedure of crystal packing reconstruction using a certain number of intermolecular interactions is introduced and demonstrated on the crystal structure of L-histidine·HCl·H2O. Geometric restrictions based on intermolecular interactions are used for formation of a molecular pair as a basic repetitive motif of the crystal packing. The geometric ...

Conduction Electrons in Magnetic Metals

Conduction Electrons in Magnetic Metals

The conduction electrons in magnetic metals are sometimes themselves responsible for the magnetism, as in the 3d transition metals, and sometimes are magnetic intermediaries, as in the rare earths. In both cases the calculated magnitude of the exchange interactions is now in good agreement with experiment. The effect of magnetism upon the crystal structu ...