Biology Chapter 24 Vocabulary

Biology Chapter 24 Vocabulary

Name: ______

Biology Chapter 24 Vocabulary

1. Archaebacteria have unusual lipids in their cell membranes and have introns in their DNA. Their cell walls are also characterized by the absence of ______, a proteincarbohydrate compound found in the cell walls of eubacteria.

2. ______, a broad phylogenetic group of archaebacteria, are named for their unique method of harvesting energy by converting H2 and CO2 into methane gas.

3. ______, which are salt-loving archaebacteria, live in environments with very high salt concentrations, such as the Great Salt Lake and the Dead Sea.

4. ______, a third group of archaebacteria, live in extremely acidic environments that have extremely high temperatures, such as hot springs.

5. Eubacteria that are rod-shaped are called ______.

6. Sphere-shaped eubacteria are called ______.

7. Spiral-shaped eubacteria are called ______.

8. Most species of eubacteria can also be grouped into two categories based on their response to a laboratory technique called the ______.

9. ______bacteria retain the Gram stain and appear purple under the microscope.

10. ______bacteria do not retain the purple stain and take up a second pink stain instead.

11. The sudden increase in the number of cyanobacteria due to a high availability of nutrients is called ______.

12. ______are Gram-negative bacteria that can extract energy from minerals by oxidizing the chemicals in these minerals. For example, iron-oxidizing bacteria, live in freshwater ponds that contain a high concentration of iron salts. The iron bacteria oxidize the iron in the salts to obtain energy.

13. Many bacterial species produce an outer covering called a ______. It is made of polysaccharides that cling to the surface of the cell and protect it against drying or harsh chemicals. It also protects an invading bacterium from the host body’s white blood cells, which could otherwise engulf it.

14. When a capsule consists of a fuzzy coat of sticky sugars, it is called a ______. The glycocalyx enables bacteria to attach to the surface of host cells and tissues.

15. ______are short, hair-like protein structures found on the surface of some species of bacteria. They help bacteria adhere to host cells and are also used to transfer genetic material from one bacterium to another.

16. A bacterial ______is a dormant structure that is produced by some Gram-positive bacterial species that are exposed to harsh environmental conditions. They consist of a thick outer covering that surrounds the cell’s DNA.

17. Heterotrophic bacteria that feed on dead and decaying material are called ______

18. Bacteria that use sunlight as an energy source, such as cyanobacteria, are called ______. These autotrophs use light-trapping compounds similar to those used by plants to obtain energy.

19. Many bacteria are ______, which means they cannot survive in the presence of oxygen such as Clostridium tetani causes tetanus.

20. ______can live with or without oxygen. Escherichia coli, which is common in the human digestive tract, is an example.

21. Bacteria that cannot survive without oxygen are called ______. An example is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whichlives in the lungs and causes tuberculosis.

22. ______bacteria grow best in temperatures between 40°C (104°F) and 110°C (230°F).

23. ______occurs when a bacterial cell takes in DNA from its external environment. The new DNA is then substituted for a similar DNA fragment in the chromosome of the bacterial cell.

24. Bacterial ______is the process by which two living bacteria bind together and one bacterium transfers genetic information to the other.

25. The specialized pilus binds to a recipient bacterium that does not have the specialized plasmid and forms a ______, a passageway for the transfer of the genetic information.

26. In ______, a virus obtains a fragment of DNA from a host bacterium.

27. The scientific study of disease is called ______. Bacteria that cause disease are called pathogens.

28. Some bacteria cause disease by producing poisons called ______.

29. ______are toxins that are made of protein. Exotoxins are produced by Gram-positive bacteria and are secreted into the surrounding environment.

30. ______, toxins made of lipids and carbohydrates, are associated with the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli. While exotoxins are steadily released by living Gram-positive bacteria, these are not released by Gram-negative bacteria until the bacteria die. Once released, they cause fever, body aches, and weakness, and they damage the vessels of the circulatory system.