Apportionment of tax in the case of a nonresident individual Colorado-Source Income.
A nonresident individual's Colorado income tax shall be what his Colorado tax would have been were he a full-year Colorado resident apportioned in the ratio of his Colorado-source modified federal adjusted gross income to his total modified federal adjusted gross income. If the Colorado-source modified federal adjusted gross income is larger than the total modified federal adjusted gross income, the Colorado tax shall be proportionately larger than what it would have been were he a full-year Colorado resident.
(1) General Rule. A Nonresident who derives income from sources in Colorado and who has Nexus must file a Colorado income tax return and pay Colorado income tax on Colorado net taxable income. A Nonresident’s Colorado income tax liability is calculated by first calculating the Nonresident’s Colorado income tax as if the Nonresident was a full year Colorado resident and multiplying such tentative tax by the ratio of the Nonresident’s Colorado modified federal adjusted gross income to the Nonresident’s total modified federal adjusted gross income. See Department Regulation 39-22-110 for rules governing modifications to income.
(2) Definitions. The following terms have the meanings set forth below unless the context of the regulation indicates otherwise:
(a) ‘Nonresident’ means an individual who is neither a domiciliary of Colorado nor a statutory resident of Colorado as set forth in § 39-22-103(8), C.R.S. and Department Regulation 39-22-103(8)(a).
(b) ‘Business’ means a business, trade, profession or occupation, including the activities of a nonprofit Pass-through entity that has unrelated business taxable income for federal income tax purposes. Business does not include activities of a Nonresident whose only activity in Colorado is buying and selling intangible property on his or her own account (See § 39-22-109(2)(a)(V), C.R.S.).
(c) ‘Entertainer’ means an individual who receives compensation to act, entertain, or inform (e.g., speaker or lecturer) at one or more discrete events in Colorado. This includes, but is not limited to, actors, bands, singers, orchestras, dancers, comedians, speakers, lecturers and similar performers.
(d) Member’ means a partner, member, or shareholder of a Pass-through entity as defined in subparagraph (2)(e), below.
(e) ‘Pass-through entity’ means a partnership, limited partnership, limited liability partnership, a limited liability company that is treated as a partnership for Colorado tax purposes or a trust that is not taxed at the entity level (e.g., a grantor-type trust).
(f) Nexus’ means the Nonresident’s presence in Colorado, whether by being personally present in Colorado or being present in Colorado through agents or representatives, including through membership in a Pass-through entity or in a series of Pass-through entities described in paragraph (3)(c), below, for the purpose of direct or indirect financial profit, gain, benefit or advantage.
(3) Common Types of Income Derived from Sources Within Colorado. A Nonresident’s income derived from a source within Colorado is subject to Colorado income tax. The source of income refers to the location where income is earned and not to the location of the payor or to the residency of the taxpayer. § 39-22-109, C.R.S. lists several types of income that are conclusively presumed to be Colorado-source income, but it is not an exclusive list of Colorado-source income. Colorado-source income includes any income derived from sources within Colorado including, but not limited to:
(a) Ownership of Real or Tangible Personal Property. Income derived from any ownership interest in real or tangible personal property located in Colorado (e.g., leases and licenses) is Colorado-source income, regardless of whether the Nonresident carries on a Business within Colorado and regardless of the place where the sale of such property is consummated. The following are examples of Colorado-source income.
(i) Rent and royalty income earned from real or tangible personal property located in Colorado is Colorado-source income.
(ii) Any gain or loss realized from the sale of real property located in Colorado is Colorado-source income. Deferred recognition of a gain (or loss) from the sale or exchange of real property located in Colorado remains Colorado-source income when such gain (or loss) is finally recognized. These types of transactions include installment sales, exchanges or transfers.
(A) Example: A Nonresident owns real property in Colorado and makes an I.R.C § 1031 exchange of the Colorado property for real property located in Texas. At the time of the exchange, the property had appreciated in value. In the following year, the Nonresident sells the Texas property. That portion of the gain attributable to the appreciation in value of the Colorado property is Colorado-source income even though the income was not recognized until the Texas property was sold. The Nonresident continues to have Colorado Nexus as long as the gain is deferred.
(iii) With respect to tangible personal property that appreciates in value while located in Colorado but is removed from Colorado for purposes of selling such property, the gain from the sale of such property is Colorado-source income.
(A) Example: A Nonresident owns a valuable painting that is displayed in her vacation home in Colorado. The painting significantly appreciates in value while located in Colorado. The Nonresident moves the painting to Nevada and immediately sells the painting for significant gain. The gain is Colorado-source income.
(iv) Interest income paid on a tax lien certificate for property located in Colorado is Colorado-source income. Any other interest income derived from the ownership of real or tangible personal property located in Colorado is also Colorado-source income. However, interest income from a loan secured by real or tangible property located in Colorado is not Colorado-source income.
(v) Interest income from an installment sale of real or tangible personal property located in Colorado is Colorado-source income.
(b) Business Income. Income earned by, credited to, derived from, accumulated for, or otherwise effectively attributable to (referred to herein as “derived from”) a Business carried on in Colorado is Colorado-source income. A Nonresident carries on a Business in Colorado if the Nonresident (a) is present in Colorado for Business or (b) directly or indirectly (e.g., through employees, representatives, or as a member of a pass-through entity) maintains, operates or shares in the maintaining or operating of any place in Colorado where Business affairs are conducted. When a Business is carried on within and outside Colorado, only such income that is fairly and equitably attributable to the Business carried on in Colorado is Colorado-source income. The following is a non-exhaustive list of common types of Business income and rules for sourcing such income.
(i) Wage Income. Income earned as an employee for work performed in Colorado is Colorado-source income, unless a more specific rule below applies. “Performed in Colorado” means the employee is physically in Colorado when the employee performs the work.
(A) Telecommuting. A Nonresident employee who telecommutes from a location outside of Colorado is not working in Colorado and the employee’s income from such work is not Colorado-source income.
(B) Work Days. An employee’s income is apportioned to Colorado based on the number of days the employee works (“Work Day”) in Colorado. A Work Day in Colorado means a day in which the majority of the employee’s work time for that day is performed in Colorado. Travel time to Colorado is included in calculating the Colorado Work Day hours, but travel time departing from Colorado is not included calculating the Colorado Work Day hours. The denominator of this ratio is the total number of Work Days the employee works in the year. A day is not a Work Day if the work done on such day is de minimis. See example (II) below.
(I) Example. Nonresident flies from California to Colorado on Tuesday but does not perform any other Business-related work in either California or Colorado on Tuesday. Nonresident attends a 2 hour Business meeting on Wednesday, returns to California Wednesday afternoon, and works 1 hour in the California office. Travel time to Colorado on Tuesday is considered a Work Day in Colorado because no other work was performed on Tuesday. Wednesday is not a Colorado Work Day because the majority of the work hours are allocated to California (flight to California and office work in California).
(II) Example. Nonresident prolongs his work trip to Colorado through the weekend. While in Colorado on the weekend vacation, the Nonresident checks his or her email and responds to a few non-substantive emails. Such a day is neither a Colorado Work Day nor a Work Day anywhere.
(ii) Independent Contractor. Business income of an independent contractor is sourced depending on whether the income is from a purely personal service or is from other than purely personal service. Purely personal services consist of services performed by an individual independent contractor with only incidental contributions from either other individuals or property. Such services include, but are not limited to, legal, accounting, architecture, or other professional services.
(A) Purely personal service income. If an independent contractor’s Business income is earned by performing purely personal services and the purely personal services are performed both within and outside Colorado, the Nonresident shall apportion such income in the ratio of the number of hours the individual performed such services in Colorado to the total number of hours the individual performed such services in the year. But see paragraph (4)(b)(iii) and (iv) if the Nonresident is paid on commission or contingency for purely personal services. Each discrete Business activity shall be separately apportioned. See paragraph (4)(b)(ii)(3) for a discussion of discrete Business activities.
(I) Hours worked includes non-billable hours.
(II) Nonresidents independent contractors who work on a single job for entire days may utilize the Work Day rule described in paragraph (3)(b)(i)(B) of this regulation.
(III) Example. An expert witness testifies in trials conducted in Colorado during the year. The total hours the expert witness spent working in Colorado was 26. Therefore, the expert witness must apportion his or her income in the ratio of 26 hours in Colorado over the total number of work hours performed in that year.
(B) Other than purely personal services income. If an independent contractor’s Business income is earned from activities other than the performance of purely personal services, then the Business income is apportioned under the apportionment rules for corporations set forth in § 39-22-303.5, C.R.S. and the regulations thereunder.
(I) Example. A Nonresident independent contractor provides oil and gas consulting services and travels to Colorado to provide consultation services to an oil and gas exploration company. Consultant hires Company B to perform laboratory analysis, the results of which are used by consultant to provide consulting services to the exploration company. Consultant is not performing purely personal services because the personal services of Company B are not incidental in value to consultant’s services. Consultant uses the apportionment rules set forth in § 39-22-303.5(4)(c), C.R.S and the regulations thereunder.
(II) Example. Nonresident independent contractor provides interior design consulting services to homeowners. Designer also sells a substantial amount of tangible personal property to Colorado homeowners. Designer is not performing purely personal services in Colorado because he or she makes sales of tangible personal property that are not incidental in value. The designer will apportion Business income using § 39-22-303.5(4)(b), C.R.S and the regulations thereunder.
(C) Discrete Business activities. If the Nonresident independent contractor carries on two or more discrete Business activities in Colorado during the year, then the Nonresident independent contractor shall separately apportion the income derived from each activity, unless the income from each cannot be separately determined. The apportionment for each discrete Business activity, if both are purely personal services, is calculated based on the ratio of the number hours the individual performed such services in Colorado to the total number of hours the individual performed such purely personal services everywhere in the tax year. If the Nonresident independent contractor carries on more than one discrete Business activity, and at least one is a purely personal service while at least another is not a purely personal service, the Nonresident independent contractor may choose to either apportion his or her income under § 39-22-303.5, C.R.S and the regulations thereunder or may separately calculate and apportion his or her income on the basis of work hours.
(I) Example. An independent contractor provides purely personal services in the form of consulting services for two separate companies in the same year. Contractor is paid on an hourly basis and performs these services in and outside Colorado for the first company and performs all consulting services outside Colorado for the second company. Each consulting job is a discrete income producing activity and, in the absence of records demonstrating a more accurate apportionment methodology, the Department will presume that the income for work performed for the first company should be apportioned based on the ratio of the number of work hours the consultant worked in Colorado to the total number of work hours in the tax year for the first company. Income from the second company is a discrete Business activity, the income from such work is entirely allocated to a source outside Colorado, and neither the income nor the work hours for such work is included in the apportionment for the first company.
(iii) Commissions. The amount of Colorado-source income of a Nonresident employee or independent contractor whose compensation is based on commissions is determined by multiplying the gross income earned from all commissions by a fraction, the numerator of which is the amount of sales made within Colorado and the denominator of which is the amount of sales made everywhere. The determination of whether sales are made within Colorado or elsewhere is based upon where the salesperson performs the activities in obtaining the order, not the location of the formal acceptance of the contract. If the Nonresident also earns income other than as commissions (e.g., wages as base pay), then the Nonresident must apportion such non-commission income based on the applicable rule (e.g., wage income apportioned as set forth in paragraph (4)(b)(i), above).
(iv) Contingency Fees. Each contingency fee arrangements is usually viewed as discrete Business activity and the fee is apportioned based on the ratio of the number of hours the Nonresident worked in Colorado on the discrete Business activity to the total number of hours worked everywhere on the discrete Business activity in the year.