AP Biology Final Review (Facts You Missed) Pplau,Ph

AP Biology Final Review (Facts you missed and NOT straight out from the BOOK) PPLau,Ph.D. 2014 HSHP (if you listened to my lectures you wouldn’t have missed)


  1. Substrate binds to enzymes by weak interaction not covalent bonds, H-bonds etc.
  2. Amylase digests carbohydrates (starch) to simple sugars (glucose, fructose etc). Human have alpha amylase which digests starch. Cows have beta amylase that digests cellulose.
  3. Rate of enzyme reaction= change of substrate with time, or change of product with time. The slope is the rate.
  4. The initial rate is linear, and logistic afterwards due to substrate concentration decreases.
  5. Bell shaped curves for Rate vs pH or Rate vs Temp. The decline is caused by enzyme denaturation (not degradation or dead)
  6. More enzymes, higher the slope on the rate curve
  7. NH2 is the amino group, COOH is the acidic group.
  8. Primary structure for protein: the amino acids sequence, bound by covalent bonds, named peptide bonds. (AAn, formed by dehydration, losing n-1 water.)
  9. Secondary structure caused by H-bonding intramolecularly (a helix and b sheet)
  10. Tertiary structure caused by H-bonds and S-S bonds intermolecularly.
  11. quaternary structure caused by dimerization of the same peptides (two of the same bound together by vanderwall, H-bonds, S-S bond, anything except covalent); or trimers or tetramers.
  12. Know the structure of the neutral fats: triglycerides (3 fatty acids bound by glycerol) high energy molecules b/c they have a lot of hydrogens. Phospholipids have two fatty acids and highly charged on the phosphate. They are in phospholipid bilayer (cell membrane).
  13. Know the structure of steriod (fused rings): sex hormones, cholesterol etc.
  14. Know the structure of ATP and last (outtermost) phosphate bonds are high-energy.

Cell and trasport

  1. know these organells: ribosomes, mitochodria, lysosomes, Golgi, rough and smooth ER (roung makes proteins; smooth makes lipids.)
  2. Prokaryotes have no membraneous organells. Nucleus is one of them. Ribosome is not membraneous. Prokaryotes, also known as bacteria, have ribosomes. All cells have cell membranes.
  3. Know Nucleolus which is a compartment inside the nucleus and make ribosomes and rRNA and all RNA. RNA are made inside the nucleus.
  4. Bulk transport: phago (solid), pino( water), endo, exo-cytosis.
  5. Mitochondria is for cell respiration only.
  6. Chloroplast is for making only glucose.
  7. Know your endosymbiosis theory: Circular DNA, rRNA, makes its own proteins, the same size as bacteria,
  8. Nephron uses facilliated diffusion (no energy needed )and active transport (needs energy), regulated by hormones (ADH and aquaporins)
  9. All pumps (proton, sodium, potassium) are active transports.
  10. Gluose diffuses into cells by faciliated diffusion.
  11. Chemiosmosis involves the movement of H+ across a enzyme complex called ATP synthase (turbine). The force move the H+ is due to a concentration gradient and an elctrochemical gradient. H+ has a possitive charge and the outside of the thylakoid is negative.
  12. Osmosis is the movement of water across a membrane due to differences in solute concentration or water potential.

DNA replication

  1. The goal is to make identical DNA. Double the amount.
  2. DNA polymerase is an enzyme that base pairs a nucleotide with a nucleotide that is complementary to it. (A to T, G to C)
  3. Helicases are enzymes that unwind the DNA molecule into single strands of DNA
  4. During DNA replication hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases are broken not the sugar-phosphate bond of each strand.
  5. A phosphodiester bond is a bond between two nucleotides linking 2 deoxyribose. It connects a phosphate group of one nucleotide and connects to the next nucleotide at the three prime end.
  6. No enzymes are needed to form the hydrogen bonds as they form when the DNA polymerase pairs the DNA nucleotides.
  7. DNA replication is semi-conservative: a new strand is made on top of a old strand. It is also anti-parallel.
  8. Know your repliaton fork.
  9. 32P radioactive labels DNA (phosphate), 35S labels proteins.
  10. A mutation is a change in the DNA sequence of a gene
  11. DNA doubles in S phase. (part of interphase)
  12. nuclear membrane breaks down during prophase of mitosis.
  13. apical meristem is where mitosis is occurring.
  14. Mitosis is to make identical cells
  15. Cancer cells are cells that have uncontrolled mitosis or cell division.


  1. Know the lab: bromophenol blue is bleached by oxygen. So we can use it as an indicator for photosynthesis (oxgygen released).
  2. LDR (light dependent reaction) releases oxygen (byproduct) and the hotties NADPH and ATP. The hotties are used to power the Calvin cycle. The oxygen comes from splitting the water. Chemiosmosis happens with the H+ built up and diffuse through the protein channel of ATP synthase to make ATP.
  3. Cyclic electron flow only happens in Photosystem I and makes more ATP but not NADPH. No oxygen is produced either.
  4. The pigments are chlorophylls (absorb red and blue lights, not green) and carotennoids (only blue ight). Electron from the Mg in the porphyrin jumps to higher excited state and was accepted in the reaction center. The electrons released from the split of water supplement the loss of that electron.
  5. Calvin cycle: a carbon fixation cyclic process: CO2 bond with the two timer (RubP) which is 5-C, with the enzyme Rubisco to make a 6 C compound which splits right away into two 3-C compounds. Wtih ATP and NADPH, the 3-C compound turns into 6 G-3-P. One G-3-P (or called PGAL) leaves the chloroplast and form dimer to make one glucose (6C compound). The rest of the 5 cycles back to become RuBP again with ATP.
  6. Photorespiration: Stomata close during hot and sunny day to conserve water. Thereby short of CO2 and a rise of O2. All the RuBP are converted to respiration because the Rubisco enzyme is not specific to CO2. O2 binds to RuBP and losing the 5-C compound and therefore energy. Photorespiration does not make ATP unlike respiration.
  7. C4 adaptation (spatial): CO2 binds to PEP ( a 3 C compound) in the mesophyll and form a 4 C compound. As it reaches the bundle sheath cells, it breaks down to CO2 and a pyruvate ( 3C compound). The CO2 is released and goes into Calvin cycle.
  8. CAM adaptation (temporal): CO2 binds to organic acid CAM at night and release CO2 at night. Then CO2 can be used at night for the Calvin cycle to make sugar.


  1. Study the comparison of Chemiosmosis in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Text p188.
  2. All cells have the biochemical pathway glycolysis, which would make it a very ancient biochemical pathway. Not all cells have the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. In terms of evolution, glycolysis (anaerobic respiartion) is probably more ancient than aerobic respriation. ( Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm ). Glycolysis: splitting glucose into two pyruvate (3C compound) in the cytosol.
  3. Fermentation only nets two molecules of ATP compared to approximately 36 in aerobic respiration, which oxidizes glucose to 6 molecules of carbon dioxide and 6 molecules of water
  4. Oxygen is used in cellular respiration (metabolism) as the final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport chain.
  5. The electrons originate from either NADH or FADH in the electron transport chain
  6. the pH is lowered and a proton gradient is established where there are more electrons in the outer compartment of the membrane than in the inner compartment. The outer compartment is positive relative to the inner compartment.
  7. Aerobic respiration is considered to be more efficient as it results in many more molecules of ATP (approximately 36 ATP) than fermentation (2 ATP).
  8. -Carbon dioxide is formed in the Kreb’s cycle.
  9. -Carbon dioxide does not combine with lactic acid to form pyruvic acid.
  10. -Oxygen does not catalyze the glycolysis reaction
  11. The more hydrogen an organic molecule has, in general, the more energy it will contain.
  12. In general the smaller the endothermic animal, the greater their need for energy and increased cellular respiration.
  13. The rattlesnake will have the slowest rate of respiration because it is a ectotherm and does not produce heat to maintain a constant body temperature.
  14. Negative feedback occurs when one of the products of a biochemical pathway is an inhibitor or negative modulator for one of enzymes in the pathway.

Phylogeny or Taxonomy (adaptations of animals and plants)

  1. Study vertebrate and invertebrate phylogeny trees from the Brown book, including p 193.
  2. Some simple facts: Arthropods have the three germ layers, bilateral symmetry, a true coelom and an exoskeleton; Flatworms have the three germ layers, bilateral symmetry; however they do not have any sort of body cavity of coelom; earthworms have closed circulatory system and nephridia; fungi are heterotrophs, plants are autotrophs
  3. trachophytes are plants with vascular tissues
  4. Nitrogenous wastes are released as ammonia, urea, or uric acid. Ammonia and urea are soluble in water, but uric acid is not. Of the three, ammonia is the most toxic and needs to be excreted quickly. Freshwater fish quite often excrete nitrogenous waste as ammonia. Urea is less toxic but still needs to be excreted with water (forming urine). Many marine and terrestrial animals excrete urea. Uric acid is the least toxic of the three. It is insoluble in water and is excreted as solid crystals. Reptiles, birds and insects excrete uric acid. For birds and reptiles this is beneficial because it is insoluble it can be stored in an egg in a special membrane (allantois) as nitrogenous waste and not be toxic to the embryo. Also birds need to be as light as possible so using uric acid as the nitrogenous means there is no water component need to flush it out. Birds do not urinate. The white material found in bird dropping is the uric acid
  5. Characteristics of the various kingdoms: extreme environment (high temp, salt) is a derived characteristic for Archaebacteria.
  6. Fern, unlike angiosperms and gymnosperms do not produce seeds.
  7. Gymnosperms are tracheophytes that produce naked seeds meaning they do not develop inside a chamber or ovary. As a result, they do not develop fruit.
  8. Angiosperm produce fruits.
  9. Cnidarian include jellyfish and hydra. The jelly fish is like an inverted hydra.
  10. Chordates have notochords.
  11. Echinodermata includes sea stars and brittle stars. They have radial symmetry and are sessile as adults.
  12. Sponges or Porifera have no coelom and are asymmetrical.
  13. Annelids are segmented worms and are also protostomes


  1. Endosperm provides the food for a growing embryo. The endosperm was created when it was fertilized by a second sperm cell.
  2. Flowers are adaptations to ensure pollination and ultimately fertilization.
  3. Fruit attracts animals to eat the fruit with the seed.
  4. The female gametophyte in plants is produced in a protective jacket of cells called the archegonia and in higher plants it may be replaced by the ovule found in the ovary or carpel.
  5. Xylem and phloem tissue are made as primary tissue by the apical meristem. It is also made as secondary tissue by the vascular cambium.
  6. The driving force of the movement of water through xylem is transpiration pull
  7. Guttation is caused by root pressure. Root pressure may contribute to the push of water up small, herbaceous plants but cannot supply enough to push the water up a 15-meter tree
  8. Parenchyma cells have the ability to divide and give rise to other types of tissue.
  9. Sclerenchyma and xylem cells are dead at maturity. Both function in support.
  10. Collenchyma tissue is alive at maturity and functions in support. Collenchyma cells have thicker primary cells walls than parenchyma. They cells form cylinders and are found the midrib of leaves. Collenchyma tissue does not divide.
  11. Sieve cells are found in phloem tissues, and even though they do not have a nucleus, they are metabolically active.
  12. Meiosis occurs in the anther to produce microspores and in the ovule to produce megaspores.
  13. Anthocyanin is a plant pigment and not a hormone or plant-growth regulator
  14. Ethylene is a simple gas that is a hormone for ripening
  15. Indoleacetic acid is another name for the hormone called auxin, for elongation.
  16. Abscisic acid is the hormone causes aging in a plant.
  17. Cytokinnin is important is important in regulating cell division in roots and shoots
  18. It is the length of the night that is responsible for short-day plants; length of the night that triggers flowering not the length of the day.
  19. The acronym to help you remember how water moves up xylem tubes is the T.A.C.T theory. (T.ranspiration pull A.dehsion C.ohesion T.ension).
  20. Phloem is responsible for the movement of water and organic nutrients (mainly sugars) throughout the plant. This process is called translocation.
  21. auxins cause cell elongation, and that gibberellins cause an increase in cell division.
  22. The order of seed germination
  23. Fruit is derived from tissues of an ovary
  24. Auxins activate proton pumps which causes the lowering of pH that activates enzymes called expansins.
  25. Many plant cells are terminal cells and do have the ability to reproduce (replicate as in mitosis). Plant cells that have the ability to reproduce are called meristematic cells. There are two types of meristematic tissue. The first is the apical meristem and it is located in the tips of roots and shoots and produces primary tissues. This causes the plant to increase in length. The second type of meristematic tissue is lateral meristem which produces secondary tissue and causes the plant to increase in girth. There are two types of lateral meristem which is the vascular cambium and the cork cambium. The vascular cambium produces the secondary vascular tissue of secondary xylem and secondary phloem. Cork cambium produces cork cells which will make up the outer bark or periderm.
  26. The Carsparian strip is a waterproof band of material found on endodermal cells
  27. Transpiration is the loss of water vapor through the stomata of the leaves.
  28. The three parts to a seed is the seed coat derived from the ovule, the embryo, and the food. The food is called endosperm and is triploid (3n) as a result of double fertilization.
  29. Water moves from high water potential to low water potential. (Osmosis)
  30. learn the calculations of water potential in osmosis lab.

Body Systems (study the brown book or blue book)

a) Circulatory

  1. The lungs of the frog are very primitive and simply amount to two sacs that provide a surface for gas exchange compared to human lungs, which are intricately subdivided into very small chambers for gas exchange. To supplement the lungs, the skin of the frog and the lining of its mouth also provide a surface area for gas exchange
  2. During fetal circulation, the blood does not pass to the lungs for gas exchange.