AP Biology Chapter 4 Carbon Chemistry Name ______

AP Biology Chapter 4 – Carbon Chemistry Name ______

Functional Groups:

Functional groups participate in chemical changes and give each molecule unique properties. Circle the functional groups that we have discussed in the molecules below. Label each of the following where they appear in the molecules below: hydroxyl group, carboxyl group, carbonyl group, amino group, sulfhydryl group, methyl group and phosphate group. The properties of the molecules are described at the right.

1.  Formaldehyde is the starting point for making many chemicals.

Carbonyl - aldehyde

2.  Formic acid gives ant venom its sting.


3.  Lactic acid builds up as a waste product in exercising muscles and makes them feel tired.

Carboxyl and hydroxyl

4.  Ethylene glycol is an automobile antifreeze. Based on the structure of the molecule can you generate a hypothesis as to how it prevents water from freezing? Hydroxyl – repeated H-bonding with water disrupts the chemical structure of water needed for freezing to occur.

5.  Acrolein is produced when meat is heated; it is the barbecue smell.

Carbonyl - aldehyde

6.  Serine is part of many protein molecules.

hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl

7.  Urea is a waste product in urine.

Amine, carbonyl

8.  Putrescene’s name is descriptive; it is produced in rotting flesh. Amine Group

9.  Methanethiol is a colorless gas that has a putrid odor found in the blood and brain of humans. A main component of “bad breath”.


10.  Adenosine triphosphate is used as the energy currency molecule of the cell. Why is ATP so likely to react with water? Phosphate, amine, hydroxyl. Phosphorus groups are negatively charged and water to react with H2O. Furthermore each phosphate group with a negative charge is repelled from the group next to it, so the groups are like a coiled spring under tension and want to be away from eachother.

Functional Groups and Isomers

1. Functional groups can modify the properties of organic molecules. In the following table, indicate whether each functional group is polar or nonpolar and hydrophobic or hydrophilic. Which of these functional groups are found in proteins and lipids?

Functional group / Polar
Nonpolar / Hydrophobic or Hydrophilic / Found in…
All proteins / Many proteins / Many lipids
hydroxyl / Polar / Hydrophilic / No / Yes / No
carboxyl / Polar / Hydrophilic / Yes / __ / Part of the fatty acid terminal reactive group
amine / Polar / Hydrophilic / Yes / __ / No
Sulfhydryl / Polar / Hydrophilic / No / Cysteine / No
Phosphate / Polar / Hydrophilic / No / No / Phospholipids


Match the formulas (a-f) to the terms at the right. Choices may be used more than once; more than one right choice may be available.

______2. structural isomers

______3. geometric isomers

______4. can have enantiomers

______5. can make cross link in protein

______6. carboxylic acid

______7. hydrophilic

______8. hydrocarbon

______9. amino acid

______10. organic phosphate

______11. aldehyde

______12. amine

______13. ketone