The International Research Foundation
for English Language Education
BELIEFS OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS
ABOUT LANGUAGE LEARING AND TEACHING: SELECTED REFERENCES
(Last updated 6 July 2016)
Al-Bakri, S. (2015). Written corrective feedback: Teachers¹ beliefs, practices and challenges in an Omani context, Arab Journal of Applied Linguistics,1(1), 44-73.
Allen, L. Q. (2013). Teachers' beliefs about developing language proficiency within the context of study abroad. System, 41(1), 134-148.
Alexander, O. (2012). Exploring teacher beliefs in teaching EAP at low proficiency levels. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 11(2), 99-111.
Amuzie, G. L., & Winke, P. (2009). Changes in language learning beliefs as a result of study abroad. System, 37(3), 366–379. doi:10.1016/j.system.2009.02.011
Balçıkanlı, C. (2010). Learner autonomy in language learning: Student teachers’ beliefs. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 35, 90–103.
Basturkmen, H. (2012). Review of research into the correspondence between language teachers’ stated beliefs and practices. System, 40 (2), 282-295.
Basturkmen, H., Loewen, S., & Ellis, R. (2004). Teachers’ stated beliefs about incidental focus on form and their classroom practices. Applied Linguistics, 25, 243-272.
Bateman, B. (2008). Student teachers’ attitudes and beliefs about using the target language in the classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 41(1), 11–28.
Beach, S. A. (1994). Teacher’s theories and classroom practice: Beliefs, knowledge, or context? Reading Psychology, 15, 189–196.
Bernat, E., & Gvozdenko, I. (2005). Beliefs about language learning: Current knowledge, pedagogical implications, and new research directions. TESL-EJ, 9(1), 1-21.
Bodur, Y. (2012). Impact of course and fieldwork on multicultural beliefs and attitudes. Educational Forum, 76(1), 41- 56.
Borg, M. (2001a). Key concepts in ELT: Teachers’ beliefs. ELT Journal, 55(2), 186–188. doi:10.1093/elt/55.2.186
Borg, M. (2001b). Teachers’ beliefs. ELT Journal, 55(2), 186-188.
Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe, and do. Language Teaching, 36(2), 81–109. doi:10.1017/S0261444803001903
Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. London: Continuum.
Borg, S. (2008). English language teachers’ beliefs about research: Perspectives from the Netherlands. Levende Talen: Journal of the Dutch Association of Modern Language Teachers, 9(3), 3-13.
Borg, S. (2011). The impact of in-service teacher education on language teachers’ beliefs. System, 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.system.2011.07.009
Borg, S., & Al-Busaidi, S. (2012). Teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding learner autonomy. English Language Teacher Journal. (66)3, 283-292 doi:10.1093/elt/ccr065
Bråten, I., & Olaussen, B. S. (1998). The relationship between motivational beliefs and learning strategy use among Norwegian college students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23, 182-194.
Breen, M. P. (1996). Teachers: Beliefs and knowledge. In D. C. Berliner, & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 709-725). New York, NY: Macmillan.
Burke, B. M. (2011). Rituals and beliefs ingrained in world language pedagogy: Defining deep structure and conventional wisdom. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(1), 1–12.
Busch, D. (2010). Pre-service teacher beliefs about language learning: The second language acquisition course as an agent for change. Language Teaching Research, 14(3), 318–337. doi:10.1177/1362168810365239
Calderhead, J. (1996). Teachers: Beliefs and knowledge. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 709-725). New York, NY: Macmillan.
Chang, L. Y.-H. (2007). The influences of group processes on learners’ autonomous beliefs and behaviors. System, 35, 322–337.
Chatouphonexay, A., & Intaraprasert, C. (2014). Beliefs about English language learning held by EFL pre-service and in-service teachers in Lao people's democratic republic. English Language Teaching, 7(3), 1-12.
Chen, F. H., Looi, C. K., & Chen, W. (2009). Integrating technology in the classroom: A visual conceptualization of teachers’ knowledge, goals and beliefs. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25(5), 470–488. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2009.00323.x
Chia, S. C. C. (2003). Singapore primary school teachers’ beliefs in grammar teaching and learning. In D. Deterding, A. Brown, & E. L. Low (Eds.), English in Singapore: Research on grammar (pp. 117–127). Singapore: McGraw Hill.
Choi, S. (2000). Teachers’ beliefs about communicative language teaching and their classroom teaching practices. English Teaching, 55(4), 3-32.
Coady, M., Harper, C., & de Jong, E. (2011). From preservice to practice : Mainstream elementary teacher beliefs of preparation and efficacy with English language learners in the state of Florida. Bilingual Research Journal, 34(2), 223-239.
Choi, S. (2000). Teachers’ beliefs about communicative language teaching and their classroom practices. English Teaching, 55(4), 3-32.
Cohen, A. D., & Fass, L. (2001). Oral language instruction: Teacher and learner beliefs and the reality in EFL classes at a Colombian university. Íkala, 6, 43–62.
Crawley, F. E., & Salyer, B. A. (1995). Origins of life science teachers’ beliefs underlying curriculum reform in Texas. Science Education, 79, 611–635.
Cummins, C. L., Cheek, E. H., & Lindsey, J. D. (2004). The relationship between teachers’ literacy beliefs and their instructional practices: A brief review of the literature for teacher educators. E-Journal of Teaching and Learning in Diverse Settings, 1, 175–188.
De Costa, P. I. (2011). Using language ideology and positioning to broaden the SLA learner beliefs landscape: The case of an ESL learner from China. System, 39, 347–358.
Diab, R. L. (2009). Lebanese EFL teachers' beliefs about language learning. TESL Reporter, 42, 13-34.
Diab, R. L. (2005). Teachers’ and students’ beliefs about responding to ESL writing: A case study. TESL Canada Journal, 23, 28–43.
Dirkx, J. M., & Spurgin, M. E. (1992). Implicit theories of adult basic education teachers: How their beliefs about students shape classroom practice. Adult Basic Education, 2, 20–41.
Do, N., & Eyyam, R. (2010). EFL teachers’ beliefs on learning English and their teaching styles. Language Learning, 3, 83–87. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.015
Dooly, M., & Masats, D. (2010). Closing the loop between theory and praxis: New models in EFL teaching. ELT Journal, 65(1), 10. doi:10.1093/elt/ccq017
Eisenhart, M. A., Shrum, J. L., Harding, J. R., & Cuthbert, A. M. (1988). Teacher beliefs definitions, findings, and directions. Educational Policy, 2, 51–70.
Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-leftwich, A. T. (2010). Teacher technology change: How knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(3), 255–284.
Farrell, T. S. C. (1999). The reflective assignment: Unlocking pre-service English teachers’ beliefs on grammar teaching. RELC Journal, 30(2), 1–17. doi:10.1177/003368829903000201
Farrell, T. S.C. (2006). “The teacher is an octopus”: Uncovering preservice English language teachers’ prior beliefs through metaphor analysis. RELC Journal, 37(2), 236–248. doi:10.1177/0033688206067430
Farrell, T. S. C. (2007). Reflective language teaching: From research to practice (pp. 29–42). New York, NY: Continuum.
Farrell, T. S. C. (2008). Critical reflection in a TESL course: Mapping conceptual change. ELT Journal, 63(3), 221–229. doi:10.1093/elt/ccn058
Farrell, T.S.C., & Kun, S. (2008). Language policy, teachers’ beliefs and classroom practices. Applied Linguistics, 29(3), 381-403.
Farrell, T. S. C., & Lim, P. C. P. (2005). Conceptions of grammar teaching: A case study of teachers’ beliefs and classroom practices. TESL-EJ, 9(2), 1-13.
Fortanet-Gomez, I. (2012). Academics’ beliefs about language use and proficiency in Spanish multilingual higher education. In U. Smit & E. Dafouz (Eds.), Integrating content and language in higher education: Gaining insights into English-medium instruction at European universities (AILA, 25) (pp. 48-63). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Fushino, K. (2010). Causal relationships between communication confidence, beliefs about group work, and willingness to communicate in foreign language group work. TESOL Quarterly, 44(4), 700–724. doi:10.5054/tq.2010.235993
Giles, H., Dailey, R. M., Sarkar, J. M., & Makoni, S. (2007). Intergenerational communication beliefs across the lifespan: Comparative data from India. Communication Reports, 20, 75-89.
Graden, E. C. (1996). How language teachers’ beliefs about reading are mediated by their beliefs about students. Foreign Language Annals, 29, 387–395.
Graham, S., Santos, D., & Francis-Brophy, E. (2014). Teacher beliefs about listening in a foreign language. Teaching and Teacher Education, 40, 44-60.
Gunn, C. L. (2010). Exploring MATESOL student “resistance” to reflection. Language Teaching Research, 14(2), 208–223. doi:10.1177/1362168810363940
Hadley, G. (2013). Task-based language teaching from the teachers' perspective. System, 41, NUMB 1, 194-196.
Hinenoya, K., & Gatbonton, E. (2000). Ethnocentrism, cultural traits, beliefs, and English proficiency: A Japanese sample. Modern Language Journal, 84(2), 225-240.
Hobbs, V., & Kubanyiova, M. (2008). The challenges of researching language teachers: What research manuals don’t tell us. Language Teaching Research, 12(4), 495–513. doi:10.1177/1362168808097162
Horwitz, E. K. (1985). Using student beliefs about language learning and teaching in the foreign
language methods course. Foreign Language Annals, 18(4), 333-340.
Horwitz, E. K. (1988). The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign language students. The Modern Language Journal, 72, 283-294.
Hu, B., & Tian, L. (2012). Do teachers and students share similar beliefs about teaching and learning strategies? System, 40(2), 237-254.
Johnson, K. E. (1992). The relationship between teachers’ beliefs and practices during literacy instruction for non-native speakers of English. Journal of Reading Behavior, 24(1), 83-108.
Johnson, K. E. (1994). The emerging beliefs and instructional practices of preservice English as a second language teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 10(4), 439–452.
Johnson, K. E., & Golombek, P. R. (2003). “Seeing” teacher learning. TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 729–737. Retrieved from
Kagan, D. M. (1992). Implication of research on teacher belief. Educational Psychologist, 27, 65–90.
Kartchava, E., & Ammar, A. (2013). Learners' beliefs as mediators of what is noticed and learned in the language classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 48(1), 86-109.
Kennedy, C., & Kennedy, J. (1996). Teacher attitudes and change implementation. System, 24(3), 351–360. doi:10.1016/0346-251X(96)00027-9
Kern, R. G. (1995). Students' and teachers' beliefs about language learning. Foreign Language Annals, 28, 71–92.
Kissau, S. P., Algozzine, B., & Yon, M. (2012). Similar but different: The beliefs of foreign language teachers. Foreign Language Annals, 45(4), 580-598.
Kojima, C. (2010). An investigation of the beliefs of Japanese learners and teachers about learning English as a foreign language. University of Exeter. Retrieved from
Kolb, A. (2007). How languages are learnt: Primary children’s language learning beliefs. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(2), 227–241. doi:10.2167/illt033.0
Koubek, E. (2003). Constructivism and online professional development: A study of the beliefs and practices of four foreign language teachers. Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 63, 2509-2510.
Krannich, C., & Krannich, R. (2007). I can’t believe they asked me that! Manassas Park, VA: Impact Publications.
Kroskrity, P. V., & M. Fields (Eds.), Native American language ideologies: Beliefs, practices, and struggles in Indian Country. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.
Kuzborska, I. (2011). Links between teachers’ beliefs and practices and research on reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 23(1), 102-128.
Lau, K. L. (2013). Chinese language teachers' perception and implementation of self-regulated learning-based instruction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 31(1), 56-66.
Lawrence, G. P. (2001). Second language teacher belief systems towards computer-mediated language learning: Defining teacher belief systems. In K. Cameron (Ed.), C.A.L.L. – The challenge of change: Research and practice (pp. 41–52). Exeter, UK: Elm Bank Publications.
Lee, I. (1998). Writing in the Hong Kong secondary classroom: Teachers’ beliefs and practices. Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 61-75.
Lee, I. (2009).Ten mismatches between teachers' beliefs and written feedback practice. ELT Journal, 63(1), 13-22.
Lim, C. P., & Chai, C. S. (2008). Teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and their planning and conduct of computer-mediated classroom lessons. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5), 807–828. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00774.x
Lin, T. B., & Wu, C. W. (2012). Teachers' perceptions of task-based language teaching in English classrooms in Taiwanese junior high schools. TESOL Journal, 3 (4), 586-609.
Linek, W. M., Nelson, O. G., Sampson, M. B., Zeek, C. K., Mohr, K. A., & Hughes, L. (1999). Developing beliefs about literacy instruction: A cross‐case analysis of preservice teachers in traditional and field based settings. Literacy Research and Instruction, 38(4), 371–386.
Linse, C. (2011). Korean parental beliefs about ELT from the perspective of teachers. TESOL Journal, 2(4), 473–491. doi:10.5054/tj.2011.269752
Lord, G., & Lomicka, L. (2007). Foreign language teacher preparation and asynchronous CMC: Promoting reflective teaching. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 15(4), 513–532.
Lū, C. & Lavadenz, M. (2014). Native Chinese-speaking K-12 language teachers’ beliefs and practices. Foreign Language Annals, 47(4), 630-652.
Mak, S. H. (2011). Tensions between conflicting beliefs of an EFL teacher in teaching practice. RELC Journal, 42(1), 53–67. doi:10.1177/0033688210390266
Marand, E. S., & Dasgoshadeh, A. (2011). Teachers' beliefs about grammar teaching. European Journal of Social Sciences, 23(1), 53-60.
McNeill, B., & Kirk, C. (2014). Theoretical beliefs and instructional practices used for teaching spelling in elementary classrooms. Reading and Writing, 27(3), 535-554.
Mercer, S. (2006). Learner self-beliefs. ELT Journal, 62(2), 182–183. doi:10.1093/elt/ccn001
Mohebi, S. G., & Khodadady, E. (2011). Investigating university students’ beliefs about language learning. RELC Journal, 42(3), 291–304. doi:10.1177/0033688211422900
Multon, K. D., Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(1), 30.
Nagatomo, D. (2011). A case study of how beliefs toward language learning and language teaching influence the teaching practices of a Japanese teacher of English in Japanese higher education. JALT - The Language Teacher, 35(6), 29–34. Retrieved from
Navarro, D., & Thornton, K. N. (2011) Investigating the relationship between belief and action in self-directed language learning. System, 39, 290-301.
Nishino, T. (2011). Japanese high school teachers' beliefs and practices regarding communicative language teaching: An exploratory survey. JALT Journal, 33(2), 131-155.
Ollerhead, S. (2010). Teacher agency and policy response in the adult ESL literacy classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 44(3), 606–618. doi:10.5054/tq.2010.230742_1
Ozmen, K. S. (2012). Exploring student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching: A longitudinal study. Current Issues in Education, 15(1), 1-16.
Gebhard, J. G., & R. Oprandy (Eds.), (1999). Language teaching awareness: A guide to exploring beliefs and practices. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307–332. doi:10.2307/1170741
Patchen, T., & Crawford, T. (2011). From gardeners to tour guides: The epistemological struggle revealed in teacher-generated metaphors of teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 62(3), 286–298. doi:10.1177/0022487110396716
Peacock, M. (2001). Pre-service teachers’ beliefs about second language learning: A longitudinal
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Peacock, M. (1999). Beliefs about language learning and their relationship to proficiency. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(2), 247-265. doi:10.1111/j.1473-4192.1999.tb00175.x
Peacock, M. (1998). Exploring the gap between teachers' and learners' beliefs about ‘useful’ activities for EFL. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(2), 233–248.
Phipps, S., & Borg, S. (2009). Exploring tensions between teachers’ grammar teaching beliefs and practices. System, 37, 380-390.
Phipps, S., & Borg, S. (2007). Exploring the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their classroom practice. The Teacher Trainer. (21)3, 17-19.
Polat, N., & Mahalingappa, L. (2013). Pre- and in-service teachers' beliefs about ELLs in content area classes: A case for inclusion, responsibility, and instructional support. Teaching Education, 24(1), 58-83.
Poulson, L., Avramidis, E., Fox, R., Medwell, J., & Wray, D. (2001). The theoretical beliefs of effective teachers of literacy in primary schools: an exploratory study of orientations to reading and writing. Research Papers in Education, 16(3), 271–292.
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Young, T. J., & Walsh, S. (2010). Which English? Whose English? An investigation of `non-native' teachers' beliefs about target varieties. Language Culture and Curriculum, 23, 123-138.
Yuan, R., & Lee, I. (2014). Pre-service teachers' changing beliefs in the teaching practicum: Three cases in an EFL context. System, 44(1), 1-12.
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