76. McDonald’s was one of the first fast-food restaurants and has a recognized name because
a. first-mover advantages
b. late entry advantages
c. top management
d. decreased competition
77. According to population ecology theorists, births diminish over time because:
a. existing organizations may engage in actions, such as extensive advertising, to deter
b. the new environment lacks legitimacy.
c. companies are unwilling to adapt to the institutional environment.
d. isomorphism arises.
78. An organization will gain first-mover advantages when it pursues which of the following
c. generalist strategy
d. specialist strategy
79. A large video company observes that smaller companies are having success with pay-per-view
movies and decides to enter the pay-per-view market. This video company is pursuing which
of the following strategies?
c. specialist strategy
d. r-specialist strategy
80. Which of the following statements about generalists and specialists is true?
a. A generalist is able to provide better customer service than a specialist.
b. A specialist is better able to survive in an uncertain environment than a generalist.
c. Specialists and generalists can coexist in an environment.
d. Generalists typically have superior products.
81. Which of the following is an example of explorative learning?
a. A supplier implements a TQM program
b. A steel mill refines its production processes
c. A shoe manufacturer implements a network organization
d. A computer company uses the garbage-can model for making decisions
82. Improving an existing TQM program is an example of ______learning.
83. Which of the following is not one of the levels of organizational learning?
84. Organizational learning needs to be encouraged at what four levels?
a. individual, group, division, and organization
b. individual, division, organization, and interorganization
c. group, division, organization, and interorganization
d. individual, group, organization, and interorganization
85. Senge recommends using examples of mental models at the ______level of organizational
86. Developing a learning organization includes all except:
a. feeling attached to a job.
b. making programmed decisions.
c. developing a commitment to work.
d. developing a taste for risk-taking.
87. Senge encourages workers to develop a sense of personal mastery by:
a. repeating a single task.
b. referring decisions to supervisors.
c. developing and using mental models.
d. using procedures and rules.
88. Why did The Gap have trouble managing the innovation process?
a. Frontline managers were not given enough authority to determine product lines.
b. Frontline managers were given too much authority to determine product lines.
c. They didn’t recognize where the products were positioned in the life cycle.
d. They were not able to innovate effectively enough in production to produce a cost
89. What does the term “creative destruction” refer to?
a. Organization that focus too much on creativity so as to ignore the bottom line
b. Entrepreneurs that lack management skills
c. Old, inefficient companies being driven out of the market by new ones
d. Obsolete products that never make it to market
90. The leaders of innovation and new product development in established organizations are
a. project managers
b. team leaders
91. What is a knowledge-creating organization?
a. One that provides a knowledge service, such as a web search engine.
b. A research firm finding a cure for a disease.
c. One in which innovation is occurring at all levels of the organization.
d. One in which intrapreneurs share ideas.
92. What is the first step in the project management process?
a. developing a critical path model
b. charting all activities on a PERT chart
c. developing a clear plan to take the product from its concept phase to market
d. aligning product champions
93. A PERT/CAM network would most likely be used during ______.
a. quantum change
b. incremental change
c. project management
d. stage 1 of the stage gate model
94. Which innovation technique is most likely to ensure that projects receive the necessary
a. product champion
b. stage-gate development funnel
d. product team structure
95. A manufacturing manager refuses to cooperate with a sales manager because they had a big
fight last month. This is an example of ______.
a. conflict aftermath
b. manifest conflict
c. felt conflict
d. perceived conflict
96. The method chosen to manage conflict depends on:
a. the tallness of the hierarchy.
b. the source of the problem.
c. property rights.
d. integrating mechanisms.
97. Which structure will most likely cause conflict as an organization grows and differentiates?
b. product division
c. product team
98. An organization can best manage conflict by implementing a(n) ______structure and by
a. organic; centralizing
b. organic; decentralizing
c. mechanistic; centralizing
d. mechanistic; decentralizing
99. Which of the following describes the relationship between power and conflict?
a. Power and conflict are not related.
b. Groups can use their power to resolve conflicts in their favor.
c. If a group has power, other groups will not engage in conflict with it.
d. Power is the primary source of conflict.
100. Which of the following is not a source of power?
d. control over uncertainty
Organizational Theory, Design, and Change
Sixth Edition, 2010
Gareth R. Jones
Pearson Prentice Hall