2Nd Semester Final Study Guide

2Nd Semester Final Study Guide

2nd Semester Final Study Guide

95 Theses

Absolute monarch

Act of Supremacy




Ancient regime

Andreas Versalius

Anne Boleyn


Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Archduke Francis Ferdinand


Balance of power


Bartolome de Las Casas





Cape Town

Cardinal Richelieu

Catherine the Great


Catholic Reformation

Central Powers

Charles II





Constitutional government



Council of Trent


Declaration of Pilnitz

Defenestration of Prague

Deficit spending


Diet of Worms

Divine right

Dutch East India Company

Edward VI


El Greco

Elizabeth I



English Bill of Rights

English Reformation





Fourteen points

Francis Bacon

Francisco Pizarro

Frederick William I

French and Indian War


guerrilla warfare



Hernan Cortes





Ignatius of Loyola




Jean-Baptiste Colbert


Johann Gutenberg

Johannes Kepler

John Calvin

King Henry VIII

League of Nations


Leonardo da Vinci


Limited monarchy

Line of Demarcation

Louis XIV


Marie Antoinette

Maria Theresa

Martin Luther

Mary Tudor

Maximilien Robespierre




Miguel de Cervantes





Napoleonic Code


Niccolo Machiavelli

No man’s land

Oliver Cromwell

Palace of Versailles




Peter the Great

Petition of Right




Prime Minister

printing press

Protestant Reformation






Renaissance Man


Schlieffen Plan

Scientific Method

Scorched earth policy



Sir Isaac Newton



St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Tennis Court Oath


"The Prince"

Thomas More

Toleration Act

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

Treaty of Paris

Treaty of Versailles

Trench warfare


Unrestricted submarine warfare

Warm water port


William Harvey

Zimmermann telegram

Short Answer

What are 3 reasons for Exploration to occur that have been discussed in the unit?





What impact did Prince Henry have on Exploration?

Prince Henry basically pushed most of Europe into the Age of Exploration through his programs and schools. Prince Henry brought together all of Europe's greatest engineers, ship builders, cartographers, navigators, and sailors. Through the success of the Portuguese explorers, the rest of Europe was motivated to enter the period.

Name two sailors and their accomplishments for each of the following countries: Portugal, Spain.

Portugal: Dias (rounded the tip of Africa), da Gama (first to make it to India, 300% profit on the goods he returned with)

Spain: Columbus (West Indies), Magellan (Circumnavigation), Balboa (crossed Panama to claim the Pacific Ocean)

What are some goods that Europeans wanted from Africa? Name at least 3.

Slaves, ivory, gold, diamonds, salt, hides, bananas

What did the Chinese think about European goods?

The Chinese believed that European goods were unpractical and had absolutely no aesthetic value. They believed Europeans and their goods to be inferior to their own culture.

Why did Qianlong retire after 60 years when he could have continued ruling?

Qianlong retired after 60 years in honor of his grandfather who had only ruled for that long. Qianlong did not want to be seen as being a greater ruler than his grandfather.

Explain Lord Macartney's three strikes with the Chinese.

Failed to give gifts to the Chinese.

Spoke openly about English Superiority.

Failed to bow to the emperor.

Explain the extent of European trade with Japan.

Japan originally was open to trade with the Europeans. After Spain took over the Philippines, the Japanese feared they would suffer the same fate. They kicked European out and allowed only a couple ships a year.

Compare the Advantages of the Spanish with the disadvantages of the Aztec.

Advantages: Guns, Horses, Disease, Metal Armor

Disadvantages: Lack Immunity, Leather Armor, Bows and arrows

Who was Malinche? How did she become associated with Cortes and what was the extent of her help to the conquistador?

Malinche was the translator for Hernan Cortes. She was originally a slave and concubine. She helped him to set alliances and understand the superstitions of the Aztecs. She was crucial in his conquering of the Aztecs.

How were Spanish colonies ruled?

Spanish colonies were ruled by a council and viceroy system. The Council of the Indies and the viceroys, or governors, was selected by the king. The council was responsible for taxing and creating laws for the colonies while the viceroys were responsible for implementing the laws and collecting the taxes.

Describe the class system of the Spanish colonies.

Peninsulares – Spaniards

Creoles – Spanish Americans

Mestizos – Native American/ Europeans

Mulattoes – African/Europeans

What were the two English settlements discussed and what were their reasons for being created?

Jamestown - resources

Plymouth - religion

What are the major resources of the New World?

Furs, wood, fish, tobacco, indigo, gold

Charles I was also Charles V. What empire did he receive to get the new title?

What lands did it include? What did Charles do with those lands after ruling them for many years?

Charles I received the Hapsburg Empire, which included the remaining portion of the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands. Charles I gave up his land to his brother and son. The Netherlands and Spain went to his son Philip II and the Holy Roman Empire went to his brother, Ferdinand.

Why was Elizabeth I an enemy of Philip II? Name two of her actions.

She helped the Netherlands get their independence. She knighted Francis Drake, who was an enemy of Philip II and she promoted pirateering of Spanish ships.

How did Philip try to get back at Elizabeth I? What was the outcome?

He created the Spanish Armada and was defeated by Sir Francis Drake and the much faster and more maneuverable English ships.

How did Henry IV bring peace to France? What were the goals of his government?

Henry IV converted to Catholicism to create peace between the Catholics and Huguenots. He also passed the Edict of Nantes which granted religious toleration to the Huguenots. In his government, Henry strove to repair infrastructure, improve agriculture, and lessen the influence of nobles.

How did Charles I lead England to Civil War? Describe the English Civil War and the outcomes.

Charles I kept dismissing the Parliament and this irritated the leaders. The Roundheads under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell captured Charles I who was leading the Cavaliers and executed him. The EnglishCommonwealth was then created under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell who eventually led it as a dictator. The English government then returned to a monarch upon the death of Cromwell.

Puritans take strict action and ban what?

Working on Sundays, Taverns, Dancing, Gambling

What was the Glorious Revolution?

The bloodless exchange of the government to the rule of William of Orange and Mary. They were required to sign the English Bill of Rights in order to take control of the government.

Describe Peter the Great's Journey West. How did he incorporate his journey into Russia upon his return?

Peter traveled the streets of Europe learning about the culture. He learned to pull teeth and how to perform autopsies. He learned the structure of factories and how militaries were formed and operated. When he returned to Russia, he required people to adopt Western styles of dress. He also brought soldiers, factory workers, and doctors back to Russia to teach the Russian people.

Describe the establishment of St. Petersburg.

St. Petersburg was built on a swamp that was drained by Russian peasants. Peter the Great had Italian architects design the city and German engineers build it because he wanted to incorporate European styles into Russia.

What happens to Poland?

Poland was partitioned by Catherine the Great (Russia), Frederick the Great (Prussia), and Joseph II (Austria).

How were the first and second estates able to dominate over the third estate in the Estates-General?

There was only one vote per estate and the first two were able to gang up on the third estate.

Describe the Estate system of France including who is in each estate and what they are responsible for in society.

What was the purpose and result of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy?

Describe the events of the Reign of Terror.

Who is Napoleon, tell about his life growing up and his rise to power. How is he eventually forced from power in France?

List and describe the 5 reasons for World War I.

Who did Austria-Hungary blame for the assassination of Francis Ferdinand?

Why did each of these countries enter the war?





Describe Trench warfare. Why did it lead to a stalemate?

What problems existed in the trenches for the soldiers?

What were 5 new weapons or technology that was introduced? Pick 3 and tell how they were used in the war.

What nation joined the war on the Allied side in 1917? What nation dropped out of the war in 1918? Why did this nation drop out of the war?

What were the reasons for the U.S. entering World War I?

What promise did Vladimir Lenin make and keep when he came to power in communist Russia?

How was Germany hurt by the Treaty of Versailles?

What were the two fronts of the war? Where were they?

Who were the “Big Four” at the Paris Peace Conference?

What ultimately helped the Allies to win?

Name two of Wilson's Fourteen Points.