1. Which of these best shows that the Earth revolves around the sun as the moon revolves around the Earth?
2. The pull of gravity on Earth is a direct result of the
A. mass of Earth.
B. magnetic field of Earth.
C. rotation of Earth on its axis.
D. weight of Earth's atmosphere.
3. An astronomer observes a neutron star that has formed after a supernova. It is spinning rapidly and emitting radio
waves. This star is a
B. black hole.
4. Venus is completely enveloped in clouds that hide its surface from view on Earth. Which statement is also true
about these clouds?
A. They keep the surface cool.
B. They produce sulfuric acid rain.
C. They are mostly made of water.
D. They are caused by volcanoes.
5. The Sun's gravity holds each planet in its orbit. Pluto is farther away from the Sun than Earth is. How does the
effect of the Sun's gravity on Pluto compare with the effect of the Sun's gravity on Earth?
A. The Sun has the same gravitational pull on all planets that are in orbit.
B. The Sun has more gravitational pull on Pluto because it is smaller.
C. The Sun has less gravitational pull on Earth because it is closer.
D. The Sun has less gravitational pull on Pluto because it is farther away.
6. Why does the amount of daylight change during the course of a year?
A. The amount of light and heat radiated by the Sun changes at different times of the year.
B. The distance between the Sun and Earth changes from summer to winter.
C. The North Pole points more toward the Sun at one time of the year than another.
D. Earth rotates at different speeds at different times of the year.
7. Footprints made by astronauts on the Moon many years ago are probably still there because
A. the heavy astronauts left very deep footprints in the Moon's dust.
B. the dust on the Moon hardened into stone.
C. time passes much more slowly on the Moon.
D. the Moon has no weather.
8. Daylight in the Northern Hemisphere lasts longer in summer than in winter, and the change in the length of day happens in a predictable pattern. Which statement correctly explains this condition of Earth's environment?
A. The Sun moves closer to Earth in summer and farther away in winter.
B. Earth, with its tilted axis, moves around the Sun in a predictable way.
C. There is a predictable change in the amount of heat and light given off by the Sun.
D. Earth turns slower in summer than it does in winter.
9. How does the number of hours of daylight compare to the num0ber of hours of darkness on March 20, the first day of spring in the Northern Hemisphere?
A. The hours of daylight and darkness are the same.
B. There are more hours of darkness than daylight.
C. There are more hours of daylight than darkness.
D. The number of hours of daylight and darkness cannot be predicted in advance.
10. It is about 28 days from one full moon to the next. This is because 28 days is about the time it takes for one
A. revolution of the Moon around Earth.
B. revolution of Earth around the Sun.
C. rotation of the Sun.
D. rotation of Earth.
11. Marty learned that a planet's orbital velocity is related to its distance from the Sun. He noted that orbital velocities range from 4.7 km/sec (Pluto) to 47.8 km/sec (Mercury). Which planet is likely to have an orbital velocity of 5.4km/sec?
12. If you were to watch the stars all night, they would seem to
A. stay in exactly the same place in the sky.
B. move across the sky at night, as the Sun does during the day.
C. go in circles around the point straight up from where you are.
D. move across the sky at night, in the opposite direction that the Sun moves during the day.
13. The average temperature in Atlanta in June is 25oC, but the average temperature in December is 7oC. Why is the average temperature in Atlanta higher in June than in December?
A. The Sun is hotter during June than it is during December.
B. Earth is closer to the Sun in June than it is during December.
C. Earth's axis is tilted so that Atlanta gets more direct sunlight in June than in December.
D. The atmosphere in Atlanta absorbs more heat from sunlight in June than in December
14. Solar eclipses rarely occur because
A. the moon usually travels directly between Earth and the sun.
B. the moon's orbit is tilted in relation to the Earth's orbit.
C. the moon usually travels directly behind Earth.
D. the moon is too close to the earth.
15. During winter months observed from Northern latitudes, the constellation Orion will rise in the East, travel across the
night sky, and set in the West. Which BEST explains this observation?
A. The constellation Orion is orbiting the Sun.
B. The constellation Orion is orbiting the Earth.
C. The constellation Orion appears to move across the sky as a result of the Earth's tilt.
D. The constellation Orion appears to move across the sky as a result of the Earth's rotation.
16. Which planet is characterized by polar ice caps, a pink sky, a rust-colored surface, large volcanoes, and surface channels?
17. Saturn is a very massive planet (95.2 Earth masses), yet it has a calculated surface gravity (0.92) less than that of Earth. Which is a possible explanation?
A. Saturn has a GREATER orbital period.
B. Saturn has a GREATER mean distance from the Sun.
C. Saturn has the MOST prominent rings in the solar system.
D. Saturn's MOST abundant elements are the very light H2 and He.
18. As you INCREASE the mean distance from the Sun, you also INCREASE the
C. orbital period.
D. surface gravity.
The Earth rotates on its axis at a tilt of 23.5°. The diagram displays the Earth during the summer in the Northern
hemisphere. Predict the climate change if the tilt was INCREASED to 30.0°.
A. Northern hemisphere summers would be shorter in duration.
B. Northern hemisphere summers would be longer in duration.
C. Northern hemisphere summers would be cooler in temperature.
D. Northern hemisphere summers would be warmer in temperature.
10. During which of these phases of the moon will the tides be highest?
21. Kate is building a model of the solar system. She chooses a basketball to represent Earth. She wants her model to represent the relative sizes of all the planets and the Moon accurately.
Which of the following should Kate use to represent the Moon?
A. a marble
B. a Ping-Pong ball
C. a softball
D. a soccer ball